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Once the gametes are formed, for a new being to occur, it is necessary for the ovum and the sperm to merge and join together, this process is called fertilization. In the human species the fertilization is internal, that is to say it takes place inside the body of the woman, concretely in the Tubes of Fallopian.
To do this, it is necessary that there is copulation or coitus which involves the introduction of the penis into the vagina and the subsequent ejaculation of the semen (although, as we shall see, there are presently assisted reproduction techniques by means of which a fertilization In vitro, in the laboratory).
If there is no obstacle (some contraceptive method) the semen will pass through the vagina, cross the uterus and reach the fallopian tubes. Of the hundreds of thousands of spermatozoa, only a few will reach the egg and only one will be able to traverse the egg's plasma membrane and fertilization. All other sperm are destroyed on the trip. The reason millions of sperm are produced is to ensure that at least one can reach the egg.

The fertilized ovum is a new cell that returns to have 46 chromosomes, since it will have the 23 chromosomes of the ovule but the 23 of the spermatozoid and is denominated Zygote. The zygote will begin a journey until it is implanted in the

During this journey begins to divide and begins to develop as an embryo. From the 16 cells we start talking about the morula, as it looks like a blackberry. Then some cells continue dividing and moving and they change to a state called the blastula.

In this state it is how it reaches the uterus and there is implantation or nidation

The outline summarizes the journey from the embryo to the uterus, which lasts about a week.

Pregnancy and Child Video


The first sign that a pregnancy has occurred is that menstruation disappears. Pregnancy is the stage of development of the fertilized ovum, this process lasts 9 months and is performed in the uterus.

When the blastula is implanted in the uterine endometrium, the amniotic sac is developed that will house the embryo. The amniotic sac is filled with amniotic fluid that will cushion the possible blows that it receives.

Between the uterus and the embryo will develop the placenta that will feed the embryo and remove and eliminate the waste products, will also act as a defensive barrier. Communication between the placenta and the embryo takes place through the so-called umbilical cord, through which two arteries and a vein pass through.

Throughout the nine months of pregnancy, morphological and physiological changes take place
First trimester: Implantation in the uterus and early stages of development. In the second month all organs are already developed and some begin to function. It grows rapidly but unevenly, it grows mainly the head that distinguishes itself from the rest of the body. From the third month on, it is called the fetus, measuring about 3 centimeters and weighing about 10 grams.

Second trimester: The woman's belly grows as the size of the uterus increases. By the fifth month the development of the belly goes to the navel. The breasts increase in size and the woman notices the movements of the future baby. All organs are perfectly developed and the fetus grows. At the end of this quarter it measures about 30 centimeters and weighs 1 kilo.
Third trimester: The uterus reaches maximum development. The organs mature, especially the lungs and adipose tissue under the skin. The fetus changes position and is placed face down. From the seventh month the fetus would be viable and could survive if born at that time. At the end of pregnancy the baby can measure between 45 and 50 centimeters and weighs between 2.5 and 3 kilos.


At the end of the nine months birth or birth occurs.

Expansion stage: The uterus and pelvis dilate to allow passage of the baby. The amniotic sac is broken and the amniotic fluid is released, which is popularly known as "breaking water". I could last from 3 to 14 hours. In first-time women it is longer.

Expulsion phase: the baby comes out through the vagina. The umbilical cord is cut and from that moment the baby can begin an independent life. It usually lasts between 15 and 30 minutes. Finally, the placenta is expelled, about 15-30 minutes later and the labor ends.


From pregnancy to moments after childbirth, women go through a series of changes both physical and psychological, which are not only individual issues, but also find their relationship in the social environment closest to the family as well as in the environment and The rest of the socio-cultural context.

We carry out this work that deals with the different periods that occur during the development of a new life, it is of great value because this process crosses us all as humans, and thus to know the different emotional states that every woman lives during pregnancy, childbirth And puerperium. Through it we have the possibility of finding a reliable and profound explanation of the nine moons that every woman goes through.

From the moment the ovum is fertilized by a spermatozoon, a series of important physical and psychic changes begin to take place in the woman's body to adapt to the new situation, and will continue for the next nine months. This is what we know as a pregnancy. Which alters the normal hormonal patterns of a woman, one of the first symptoms of pregnancy is the loss of the menstrual period. Other symptoms are increased breast tenderness, tiredness, nausea, sensitivity to odors, increased frequency of urination, mood swings and weight gain. Some women also experience cravings for unusual substances, such as ice, clay, or corn starch. This condition, called pica, may be indicative of insufficiency of iron or other nutrients. Before the twelfth week of pregnancy, some of these symptoms may go away, but others appear. For example, the breasts increase in size and darken the nipples. The most obvious symptom is weight gain. Most doctors now advise that weight gain should not exceed 12 kilograms at the end of pregnancy.

During gestation, the most important stressful event is gestation itself, and it is different if it is the first pregnancy, or if there have been others, if it is a teenager or a woman, if the woman is single or married ; Is also different among socioeconomic groups, and in different cultures. But the most important thing is if the pregnancy is planned and if the child is wanted


We will give you two possible recommendations for all those women who have not yet communicated the news to their partner.

They may surprise their partner with the news of pregnancy during a romantic dinner

Or it may be best to take the pregnancy test at home when he is with you. Only you know the best way to share the news about your pregnancy.

In some couples, the woman first determines if she is pregnant and then shares the news with her partner. If the pregnancy was not planned, how to announce it may depend on whether your partner will receive the news as a wonderful surprise or if you are going to distress and see it as something of concern ...

Whatever your situation, understand that your partner may react differently to what you expect. Men do not experience pregnancy in the same way as women, and they can respond with less emotion than you would like. This is normal. Give your partner a little space to digest the news in their own way

We will give you two possible recommendations for all those women who have not yet communicated the news to their partner

They may surprise their partner with the news of pregnancy during a romantic dinner

Or it may be best to take the pregnancy test at home when he is with you. Only you know the best way to share the news about your pregnancy.

In some couples, the woman first determines if she is pregnant and then shares the news with her partner. If the pregnancy was not planned, how to announce it may depend on whether your partner will receive the news as a wonderful surprise or if you are going to distress and see it as something of concern ...

Whatever your situation, understand that your partner may react differently to what you expect. Men do not experience pregnancy in the same way as women, and they can respond with less emotion than you would like. This is normal. Give your partner a little space to digest the news in their own way


During the course of pregnancy it is normal for women to experience a mix of different emotional states such as joy, sadness, fear, anxiety, restlessness, worry, self-doubt and even guilty feelings.

 Joy - sadness

They will feel emotionally very sensitive, they will easily become happy or sad and sometimes they will not be able to understand why they are depressed.

Fear - anxiety - tranquility

It is likely that in the beginning of pregnancy they become distressed and afraid to think about the possibility of losing the baby or the common discomforts of gestation. At the end of pregnancy, the idea of ​​physical abnormalities can be frightened in the baby, born prematurely, not breathing or crying at birth, not being able to be a good mother, making unforgivable mistakes such as dropping Small, not being able to face the daily task of attending and the pain of childbirth.

All these fears are frequent in women, fortunately these moments are the least since most of the time they will feel calm and with a sense of fullness and pride.

 Uncertainty - doubts - feelings of guilt

They may experience confusions of feelings about pregnancy, the ability to cope with it, and be able to handle it adequately to the needs of the newborn future. They may have feelings of guilt at not accepting the pregnancy from the beginning, because it prevents the continuation of the rhythm of life, because the couple does not want a child at this time or because they already have many. It is important to know that it is a completely normal feeling; Pregnancy is a great change and as such generates fear. This feeling will be overcome as the pregnancy progresses and by accepting the special of this event.

 Fears of Pregnancy The Specialists (Lic. Adriana Penerini, Psychologist, specialist in maternity, paternity and aging, Director of Baby on Board, author of the book: "The adventure of being a mom" Valeria Starowlansky, founder of Born Together , Groups of emotional containment in pre and postpartum) confirm that there are several fears and fears that are manifested:

Some fear childbirth and pain.

Others express the fear of not realizing when the birth will occur.

They fear that something may happen to them or the baby.

And there is the fear of not being able to fulfill the role of mother.

That the baby is not normal: This may not allow them to fully enjoy the experience.

That they can not reintegrate to their work: It is very common that they fear to "lose everything". They find it difficult to imagine an adequate coordination of both functions.

Not being able to give the tit: Sometimes for lack of information, sometimes for previous bad experiences, own or others.

To be "fat": It is very common for women to think of a kilo more as in a devastating reality. This is caused by the exaggerated value that seems to be given to women who have a baby and "remain the same."

The men at their side are "no longer attracted" by them: Many women believe that motherhood and the relationship are two incompatible situations, this is favored by changes in the body. For centuries the image of the woman for the man and the woman for the children has been split.

Fears are given according to each pregnant "

The specialists point out that the appearance of the fears has a lot to do with the personality of the pregnant woman and her environment, and she adds: It is often advisable not to listen to certain comments, such as "... something happened to someone"; More should be preserved and allowed to say "I am not in a position to listen". Both specialists agree that there are no studies confirming that the mother's mood changes during pregnancy can harm the baby or alter its normal development. But they point out that the baby does not remain alien to the emotional experiences of the mother: "The baby perceives everything that happens to his mother and these perceptions will be part of its structure." And they recommend accepting the state of pregnancy, enjoy it, live it naturally and not as a disease. A mother who lives her pregnancy fully - not without fears, but contained and accompanied - will have a more pleasurable experience for her, her partner and her baby. "In these nine months in which the child feels growing in the belly, Sees the body transform, changes the mood, the most important is to live it to the full.

Pregnancy and Child Video


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Each trimester of gestation has its own characteristics
 In the first quarter:

Predominance is the surprise, the emotion. At the same time, some physical discomforts can interfere with mood. Fears often arise regarding the permanence of gestation. That is why many choose not to communicate their status before being sure that everything is in order. It is common for sexual desire to withdraw and to be weeping or more sensitive. There is fatigue and a certain lack of interest in any other issue that does not relate to gestation. In the second quarter:

It recovers the good physical condition. Anxiety about "feeling the baby" appears. The relationship with the obstetrician is strengthened and more energized. Fear of normal baby may arise. The pregnant woman is closer to the couple, more intensely sexuality. Start to connect with the project itself, plan changes, choice of clothes, furniture, etc. The mood is more stable. There are some concerns about weight and body care. "There are no physical discomforts during this trimester, but the baby's movements are not very noticeable either:" I know I'm pregnant but I do not feel like this ... "This brings Anguish and at the same time there is a greater connection with the body, since one is alert to all the sensations.Some pregnant women begin to feel more discomfort, to become more clumsy, others feel more sexy and beautiful.

In the third quarter

The tummy and baby have a more palpable entity. It begins to think more about childbirth, and with it come certain fears especially how everything will come out, whether or not it will be normal birth ... There arise some anxieties, especially if from the personal will be up to the circumstances. With the pair there is more approach, while normal activity begins to cost more. Towards the end of the seventh or eighth month, it is difficult to concentrate on tasks, to sleep, to mobilize. Near the date of birth, there is a mixture of huge desire on one side and fear on the other. They want and do not want the day of birth to arrive.


If true. But do not be tempted by what they see in the movies or with popular sayings. For example, it is not true that children are born with spots because of a craving that the mother could not meet. It is normal for some of your food tastes to change during pregnancy, and you should not be scared about it. We will pass through these changes.

It is true that some of the tastes may change during pregnancy. They may suddenly reject some of your favorite foods, such as fried fish. And strangely they crave food that they have never tried or did not like before they get in shape, like fresh cheese or a chicken tortilla with caramel.

But ... it is not true that these cravings and rejections make them go crazy as we often see in the movies, which shows women with large tummies leaving the house at 3 in the morning to eat a toast. What's more, they do not happen when the pregnancy is advanced and the belly has already grown. On the contrary, they usually happen at the beginning of pregnancy, in the first trimester.

The new cravings and rejections will appear little by little, and the body will announce what it wants and what it does not want.

What do they owe? To this day it is not known exactly what causes these changes in taste for food. Moreover, cravings sometimes happen to future dads as well and something if we are sure, that changes happen in the body of the mother. Theories include that they may be the result of hormonal changes, new nutritional needs, typical illnesses of pregnancy, or simply lack of attention and affection, or insecurity.

The hormonal load can potentiate the senses to some extent, and some foods that were previously worshiped will suddenly smell very strong or leave a bad taste in the mouth. And sometimes the hormonal changes can affect your digestion and there will be foods that do not like them.

But, these new food tastes can also be due to messages sent by the body over their needs. It is believed that the body may be asking for what it most needs in nutritional terms to feed its baby; To recharge the energies or simply to feel good. For these last two reasons it is sometimes explained that they wish to eat more sweets.

Her cravings and rejections may be related to the typical malaise of the first months of pregnancy (such as nausea and vomiting). It is normal that they reject certain foods that make them feel bad, and that they prefer the foods that their body tolerates. Sometimes it may be that the favorite foods are not necessarily bad, but simply it was just what they ate one day when they have had many nausea and now their body associates that smell or flavor with the memory of that malaise.


Sex in pregnancy is more common than is believed. One tends to think that the sexual appetite of the women in this stage diminishes and, to some extent is real. During the first weeks of gestation, about 54% of women see that sexual desire disappears due to nausea and other symptoms. But to this are added old taboos and other fears that make us believe that sex during this stage is harmful. Actually, this desire depends on the trimester, but also on each mom. In addition, neither the mother nor the baby are at risk. In fact, it can be beneficial for both. Except in the case of a risky pregnancy or when the doctor contraindicates vaginal intercourse, you should enjoy sex.

In the first trimester, some women do not want to make love to the usual discomforts of this stage. On the other hand, others have more sexual desires, especially for the changes in the genital sensitivity that provoke the hormonal changes.

With the fourth month of gestation, as of week 14, the body has become accustomed and, loaded with hormones, multiply the woman's libido. From then until the sixth or seventh month, the woman can have the sexual activity she wants. Even there are those that can be excited more easily and quickly. It increases the swelling of the labia majora and minors and also the lubricity of the vagina, so that the sexual act can become more pleasant, sometimes reaching multiorgasm.

From the sixth month on, with week 24, some couples practice less sex because of discomfort or concern. But most continue with their normal sex life. In the last few months, orgasm is more beneficial than ever for the baby and her future child.


 good sexuality during pregnancy prepares the body for a vaginal delivery, the muscles of the vagina are exercised during a sexual relationship and they improve their muscle tone for the moment of birth. In addition, with exercise, the baby receives more oxygen, which helps him to be healthier.

Your child will not notice anything except your quickest pounding and quickened breathing. Unless your pregnancy is complicated, you should not worry about the little one. The ovary membranes and the amniotic fluid protect it and the cervix is closed with a protective mucus until you break water.

Risk Pregnancies

If your pregnancy is considered to be at high risk or special situations arise that could complicate your situation, your doctor will suggest spacing or abandoning sexual intercourse. It is advisable to leave the relations in the following cases:

If there is a history of abortion without a cause.

If you are less than 36 weeks pregnant and there are risks of preterm birth.

Unexplained vaginal bleeding.

If there is placenta previa or low insertion of the placenta (this happens when the placenta is placed in the inferior part covering partially or totally the cervix and makes the vaginal delivery impossible).

If you have severe pain and abnormal abdominal cramping and the doctor considers it not because of a normal pregnancy symptom.

When there is dilation of the cervix or rupture of precocious water (because they can facilitate the entry of germs into the amniotic cavity).

During treatments for vaginal herpes or other infections.

From the last trimester of a multiple pregnancy.


 What is a psychological pregnancy

A psychological pregnancy, also called utopian, is when a woman believes she is pregnant but in reality is not. It is a response of the body to an emotional state, manifesting bodily as a totally normal pregnancy. It is also called pseudociesis.

 Why it happens

The main causes of a psychological pregnancy are: the uncontrollable desire to have a child, marital problems, contrariwise can be due to fear of becoming pregnant, feeling more productive due to the early onset of menopause, loss of a previous pregnancy.This Is what could be called a somatoform disorder. Somatoform disorders encompass several psychiatric problems in which people report physical symptoms but deny having psychiatric problems. Physical symptoms or their severity and duration can not be explained by any organic disease.


Symptoms of psychological pregnancy are similar to those of a normal pregnancy. There is a disorder of the menstrual cycle, with the duration of a pregnancy, that is, 9 months. There is increased abdominal volume, but unlike the actual pregnancy, there is no belching of the navel, the mammary glands are modified, and may even have secretions of colostrum and milk, nausea and vomiting, weight gain. The woman may feel fetal movements, but of course, it would only be a sensation since there is no fetus. There is a softening of the cervix and even some patients may have elevated levels of gonadotropin, according to Barglow and Brown

 How is it proceeded

In general, when the analysis of the first pregnancy control, ultrasound and blood and urine tests were carried out, it would be verified that there is no pregnancy. But in this case, being a mental disorder, generally the woman does not want to go to the doctor because she does not want to be told what she does not want to hear, that such pregnancy is non-existent. Other times it may happen that they come to the doctor, the doctor tells them that the pregnancy does not exist and leave the doctor in search of another to confirm the pregnancy. The most important, according to experts, is for the woman to accept that she is living a fantasy. And control it later so you do not suffer a depression for the loss of "your baby." Always in case of doubt go to the doctor.

Childbirth is defined as the expulsion of one (or more) mature fetuses and the placenta (s) from the inside of the uterine cavity to the outside.

A term delivery is considered, that is to say in normal time, that occurs between the 37 and 42 weeks from the date of last rule. Births occurring before 37 weeks are considered premature births and those occurring after 42 weeks are considered post-term births.


The causes that precipitate labor are unknown, but it is believed that certain substances produced by the placenta, the mother or the fetus, and mechanical factors such as the size of the baby and its effect on the uterine muscle contribute to childbirth. Therefore the coordinated effects of all these factors are probably the cause of the onset of labor.

It is referred to as the onset of labor when various conditions are combined, such as uterine contractions, effacement (or shortening of the length of the cervix), and dilation of the cervix. The active phase of labor usually starts from the 4 cm of dilation of the cervix.

 Prodromic or prepared

It is a period excluded from labor that does not have a definite beginning, begins with the progressive appearance of a set of symptoms and signs that will serve the mother to realize that the time of delivery is approaching, although not always in shape Immediately. This period can last up to two weeks and ends with the dilation of the uterus. Not all pregnant women perceive that they are going through the preparatory stage, therefore, they begin directly with the characteristic rhythmic contractions of labor. During this period there is a progressive increase in the frequency and intensity of the contractions, the mucous plug is sometimes expelled and the discomfort at the level of the pelvis is increased.

Once you experience the painful delivery of a woman, the only thing she wants is to rest, relax and enjoy time with her baby; This time, the one that immediately follows the delivery is called postpartum. Although it is true that the birth of a child is the crucial stage of childbirth, the moment that comes after it is so or more important, here different emotions unfold and will raise some care that the mother must have. The puerperium, as we said before, is the period after the birth of the baby, this lasts between 40 days or 6 weeks, so it is also known as quarantine. In this is generated several changes, of all types, both physiological, endocrine and anatomical, anyway moms should not worry because they will disappear little by little.


The puerperium is not only one, it is divided into three stages or types; We have the immediate puerperium, this is the one that occurs in the first 24 hours, the type of mediate, which takes place from the second day to the seventh; And the late puerperium that is the one that takes place from the seventh day until day 40. Within the first puerperium an organic effort is made to achieve Uterine Hemostasis, to achieve this action two mechanisms are put into play: contractility and Retractility. The first consists of the temporary shortening of the uterine muscle fiber, while the latter shortens the uterine muscle fiber definitively; In the postpartum period, endometrial reepithelialization occurs, the lochia of serohemáticos become serous and disappear in the third week of delivery. Between 30 and 45 days ovulation can appear and in chaos if there is no fertilization will result the consequent menstruation; Finally we have the late puerperium, which lasts from 45 days until the active breastfeeding period continues, some women experience a delay in the hormonal sex cycle.

After giving birth the woman experiences several anatomical changes, the uterus returns to its normal size immediately, below the navel we will feel a hard mass, it is the same that is being rearranged; The decrease of its size occurs by the consequent decrease of fibers. As the cervix is ​​opened to facilitate natural labor, it will close in the same way (by the end of the first week); After a vaginal delivery, the vulva and vagina form a broad canal with smooth walls that will decrease in size as the days go by.

With respect to the urinary tract, the dilated ureters and pelvis will regain their anterior dimensions between 2 and 8 weeks after childbirth, however they must be careful since in some cases their exposure can result in a urinary infection. The skin on the abdomen will be stretched, a normal consequence of pregnancy, these walls will remain so for a while; The breasts are the ones that suffer the most changes, the hormones of pregnancy stimulate their growth and the production of milk; The secretion of the same will be maintained by the sucking stimulation of the baby. We should ask mothers for calm if the secretion is not too much, this is normal, at first it will be sparse and yellowish, but rich in minerals and proteins, this is known as colostrum, which will gradually become milk


It is expected, from the popular knowledge that a woman in these conditions is more sensitive, more crying, with sudden mood swings, that is, she is allowed for about forty days to be different. After this period the environment begins to expect total and absolute happiness, fullness and only joy for this woman. If this does not happen it is common to hear about "postpartum depression".

At the time of delivery, mom and baby who were together for about nine months, are separated for the first time, beginning a privileged link, the earliest, the first for all human beings. Of all species, humans gave birth to the most helpless puppies and so we need another to survive.

Here the first maternal function, the one of the support, is installed.

From here on, mom and baby begin a process of merging, according to some authors, where they will be in tune with each other. Mom and baby have to intonate, step in mutually to, on the side of the baby ask for what you need and on the side of the mother adequately meet what he requests.

Pregnancy inside: Childbirth and birth

Common questions about pregnancy

Replies of followers

I have 20 weeks and my belly is soft and my belly does not notice, and it is my fourth baby after 
almost 11 years but it moves not notice but I'm sorry ... Someone else who finds him

Hello, I'm in the 39th week! It's my second baby, but I feel like a first-timer with a lot of nerves !!

Hello girls, I'm 36 weeks old, it's my fourth baby and I feel like I was the first nervous acid ect but I'm happy that I'll have a girl after three boys.

Hello I am in week 36, I started contractions Braxton, every move I make my baby feel, is already 
settled with the head down, we ask with faith to God so that everything is well :) greetings to all and that them Go very well !!

Contact your doctor for more information. The information provided on (what the health) is of a general nature and for purely disclosure purposes can in no way replace the advice of a physician (or a legally qualified person) or, in specific cases, of other operators health.

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