Gastritis is an inflammation (swelling) of the stomach lining.
Causes: There are many causes that lead to gastritis. The most common are:
Erosion (loss) of the protective layer of the stomach lining;
Stomach infection with Helicobacter pylori bacteria;
Medicinal products (such as aspirin or anti-inflammatory drugs);
Other less common causes are:
Autoimmune disorders (such as pernicious anemia);
The bile reflux in the stomach (biliary reflux);
Eat or drink caustic or corrosive substances (such as poisons);
Excess secretion of gastric acid (for example due to stress);
Viral infection, especially in people with a weak immune system.
Gastritis may occur suddenly (acute gastritis) or gradually (chronic gastritis).
SYMPTOMS: The most common are:
I was dark;
Loss of appetite;
Vomiting with blood.
DIAGNOSIS: Tests vary according to the specific cause. A radiography of the top of the digestive tract, esophagogastroduodenoscopy or other examinations can be performed.
THERAPY: Therapy depends on the specific cause. Some of the causes disappear over time. Drugs to decrease the release of acids in the stomach can be assigned. They usually eliminate the symptoms and promote healing in the case of acute gastritis. A gastric ulcer may be present, and should be cured before gastritis. If the cause is stress, you can deal with prevention. Drugs to decrease the production of gastric acid such as proton pump inhibitors should be administered to patients directly in the hospital.
Antibiotic therapy is used to treat chronic gastritis caused by Helicobacter pylori infection. Again, antacids or other drugs, such as cimetidine or proton pump inhibitors such as Prilosec, have the same effects. Gastritis caused by pernicious anemia is cured with vitamin B12.
PROGNOSIS: The prospects of healing depend on the cause but are usually good.
PREVENTION: Avoid long-term use of irritating substances (such as aspirin, anti-inflammatory drugs or alcohol).
The knee pad is a condition in which the knees remain apart when a person is with their feet and ankles joined.
Causes: Babies are born with crooked legs because of their folded posterior position in the uterus. The child's crooked legs begin to straighten out once they start walking and their legs begin to withstand the weight (about 12 to 18 months of age). The normal appearance is usually reached from the time the baby is 3 years old. At this time, a child can usually stay with her ankles and knees joined. If the arch legs persist in this period, the child is said to have crooked legs or knee laced.
If your legs are severely arched, it may be a sign of rachitism, caused by vitamin D deficiency. Color people are more at risk. Other causes of knee pad include Blount's disease, bone dislocation, and lead or fluoride intoxication.
SYMPTOMS: The most common are:
Knees that do not touch with their feet joined;
Arched legs on both sides of the body;
Stubborn legs over 3 years old.
DIAGNOSIS: A physician can usually diagnose the knee just by looking at the baby. Blood tests may be needed to exclude rachitism. X-rays can be done if the baby is more than 3 years old if the curvature is worse, if it is asymmetric or if other symptoms suggest a disease.
THERAPY: No treatment is recommended for the knee pad, unless the condition is both extreme. The child must be re-evaluated at least every 6 months. If the condition is severe, special shoes can be worn to rotate the feet outward. Sometimes, in a teenager with severe knee pain, surgery is performed to correct deformity.
PROGNOSIS: In many cases you can heal, and there is usually no problem standing. Usually there are no complications. Contact a doctor if the child shows persistent worsening of the legs after 3 years.
PREVENTION: There is no known prevention except to avoid rachitism. Make sure the baby has a normal exposure to sunlight and adequate levels of vitamin D in the diet.
Sources: [Channel ST. Osteochondrosis or epiphysitis and other various disorders. In: ST Channel, Beatty JH, eds. Campbell's Orthopedic Operations. 11 ° ed. Philadelphia, PA: Mosby Elsevier, 2007; http://health.nytimes.com/health/]
Membrane-proliferative glomerulonephritis is a renal disease affecting inflammation and changes in the microscopic structure of renal cells. It leads to renal dysfunction.
Causes: Glomerulonephritis is an inflammation of the glomeruli, the internal kidney structures that help filter the fluid out of the blood to form urine. The membrane-proliferative form is caused by an abnormal immune response. Antibodies deposits accumulate in a part of the kidneys called glomerular basal membrane. This membrane allows filtering and excess fluid from the blood. Changes in this membrane compromise the body's ability to filter urine. Proteins and fluid escapes from the blood vessels into the body's tissues, resulting in swelling (edema). Nitrogen waste products can accumulate in the blood (azotemia) due to kidney failure. There are two forms of membrane-proliferative glomerulonephritis, called Type I and II.
Most cases are type I. Type II is much less common and tends to get worse faster than type I. Conditions affect both men and women, mostly before 30 years.
SYMPTOMS: The most common are:
Blood in the urine;
Decreased urine volume;
Swelling of any part of the body;
Changes in mental status as decreased attention or reduced concentration.
DIAGNOSIS: The results of a physical examination vary depending on the symptoms. Swelling can be present along with signs of fluid overload, such as abnormal sounds when listening to the heart and lungs with the stethoscope.
Blood pressure is often high because of increased water and sodium and for retention and increased renin production, a hormone that monitors blood pressure. Disease can occur in different forms. It can be seen as acute nephrotic syndrome, nephrotic syndrome, or an abnormal urine analysis in the absence of symptoms. These tests help to confirm the diagnosis:
Proteins in the urine;
Azotemia and creatinine;
Serum complement levels;
Complement of serum C3 nephritic factor.
A kidney biopsy confirms the diagnosis of type I.
THERAPY: Treatment depends on the symptoms. The goals of the treatment are to reduce the symptoms, prevent complications, and slow the progression of the disease. A change in diet may be necessary. This may include salt, fluid or protein restriction to help control high blood pressure, swelling and build up of waste products in the blood. Medicines that may be prescribed are:
Blood pressure medicines;
Dipyridamole with or without aspirin;
Dialysis or kidney transplantation may eventually be needed to manage renal failure.
PROGNOSIS: The disorder often slowly worsens and finally results in chronic renal failure. 50% of cases lead to chronic renal failure in 10 years. Possible complications may be:
Acute renal failure;
Acute nephritic syndrome;
Chronic renal failure.
Contact a doctor if you have symptoms of this condition if the symptoms persist or worsen, or if new symptoms develop, including decreasing urine production.
Swelling of the stomach
A swollen abdomen is when the belly is larger than usual. Abdominal swelling, or distension, is a common condition, which is usually due to eating too much, rather than a serious illness. Simple increase in body weight, premenstrual syndrome, pregnancy, or unconscious swallowing of air can lead to this problem. Abdominal distension is often due to gas in the intestines. This can result from eating fibrous foods such as fruits and vegetables. Beans are common sources of intestinal gas. Dairy products can also lead to abdominal swelling if you are intolerant to lactose. Swelling of the stomach can also result from occasional fluid buildup in the abdomen, which can be a sign of serious medical problems.
CAUSES: The most common are:
Involuntary swallowing of air;
Irritable colon syndrome;
Excessive power supply;
Partial intestinal occlusion;
DIAGNOSIS: Your doctor will perform a physical examination and ask questions about the patient's medical history. Exams that can be made include:
Abdominal computerized tomography;
Analysis of faeces;
THERAPY: A swelling of the stomach due to a heavy meal will go away when the food is digested. Eat moderately to avoid swelling. If the cause is swallowed air, awareness, often leads to self-control. Eat slowly, avoid carbonated beverages, avoid chewing gums or suck your candy, avoid drinking through a straw, or sipping on the surface of a hot drink.
For abdominal swelling caused by malabsorption, try changing dietary habits and reducing milk consumption. For irritable bowel syndrome, increase dietary fiber and decrease emotional stress. For these and other causes, consult your doctor and follow the prescribed therapy.
Contact a doctor if:
Abdominal swelling is getting worse and does not go away;
Swelling occurs with other inexplicable symptoms;
The belly is soft to the touch.
Sources: [Proctor DD. Approach to the patient with gastrointestinal disease. In: Goldman L, Ausiello D, eds. Cecil Medicina. 23a ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders Elsevier, 2007; http://health.nytimes.com/health/; Postmaster RG, RA Squires. Inflamed abdomen. In: CM Townsend, RD Beauchamp, BM Evers, KL Mattox, eds. Sabiston Textbook of Surgery. 18a ed
Gonorrhea is a sexually transmitted disease (commonly known as "the knee") caused by the bacterium Neisseria gonorrhea.
Causes: This is one of the most common infectious diseases. Anyone who has any kind of sexual intercourse can take gonorrhea. The infection can spread through the mouth, vagina, penis or anus. Bacteria grow in hot and damp body areas. In women, they can be found in fallopian tubes, uterus and cervix. Bacteria can also grow in the eyes. In general, it is more common in people between the ages of 20 and 24, in large cities or in areas with low education and low socio-economic status. Risk factors include having multiple sexual partners, having a partner with a past with any sexually transmitted disease, and having sex without using the condom.
SYMPTOMS: Symptoms usually appear 2-5 days after infection, however, in men, symptoms may take up to a month to appear. Some people have no symptoms. They may be completely unaware of their illness, and therefore do not seek therapies. This increases the risk of complications and the possibility of transmitting the infection to another person. Symptoms in men include:
Burning and pain during urination;
Increased frequency or urinary urgency;
White, yellow or green secrecy;
Redness or swelling in the opening of the penis (urethra);
Swelling of the testicles;
Symptoms in women may be very mild or unspecific, and may be mistaken for another type of infection. They understand:
Vaginal secretions (greenish or gray liquid, full of bubbles and painful);
Burning and pain while urinating;
Painful sexual relations;
Severe abdominal pain (if the infection spreads to the fallopian tubes and the stomach area);
Fever (if the infection spreads to the fallopian tubes and the stomach area).
DIAGNOSIS: The tests used to diagnose gonorrhea in women include:
Endocervical sample for gonorrhea.
The tests used to diagnose gonorrhea in men include:
Urethral sample for gonorrhea.
The tests used to diagnose gonorrhea in both are:
Sore throat sample;
Chain ligase reaction;
Gonorrhea can quickly be identified by staining a tissue sample or secretions from the infected area, looking at the microscope. Although this method is the fastest, it is not the safest one. Cells that grow in a laboratory slide can provide absolute evidence of infection. A preliminary diagnosis can be obtained within 24 hours and a complete diagnosis within 72 hours. DNA testing for gonorrhea was developed. It is particularly useful as screening tests because it is more quickly analyzable. Such experiments can also be carried out on urine samples, which are much easier to collect samples from the genital area.
THERAPY: There are two goals in therapy for a sexually transmitted disease: the first is to treat the infection in the patient; The second is to identify and test all other people who have had sexual contact with the patient and also treat them to avoid further spread of the disease. Penicillin was commonly used but is not used so often because some types of gonorrhea bacteria no longer respond to it. This is called resistance to antibiotics. Bacteria responsible for gonorrhea are increasingly resistant to several antibiotics called fluorocinolones, including ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, or levofloxacin. Other antibiotics called cephalosporins, including Ceftriaxone (Rocephin), are recommended for people with gonorrhea. A medicine called Azithromycin (Zithromax) can be given to people with fewer infections. It is important to have a check-up every 7 days, especially for women who can not have symptoms associated with infection.
PROGNOSIS: By treating the disease immediately there is good chance of preventing infection, permanent scars and infertility. Any complications in women may include:
Salpingitis (Fallopian tube scars), which can lead to problems in getting pregnant;
Pelvic inflammatory disease;
Sterility (inability to have a pregnancy);
Painful reports (dispareunia).
Complications in men may include:
Periuretal abscess (picking the pus near the urethra);
Reduction of urethra caused by scars (urethral stenosis);
Urinary tract infection;
Complications in both can include:
Infections, which can be very serious;
Inflammation or infection of the reproductive system;
Oftalmia neonatorum (gonococcal conjunctivitis).
PREVENTION: Abstinence is the only absolute method of preventing gonorrhea infection. A monogamous sexual relationship with a known person may reduce the risk. You can significantly lower your risk by using the condom every time you have casual sex. To prevent further spread of the contagion, the care of all sex partners is important. Gonorrhea is often associated with the presence of other sexually transmitted diseases. About half of women with gonorrhea are also infected with chlamydia, another commonly transmissible sexually transmitted disease that can lead to infertility.
Sources: [Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Update to CDC of Sexually Transmitted Diseases Treatment Guidelines, 2006: Fluoroquinolones no longer recommended for the treatment of gonococcal infections. MMWR. 2007; U.S. Task Force Prevention Services. Screening for Gonorrhea: Recommendation Statement. Am Fam physician. November 1, 2005; Cohen J, Powderly WG. Infectious diseases. 2nd ed. New York, NY: Elsevier; 2004; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Of Sexually Transmitted Watching Diseases, 2004. Atlanta, GA: US Department of Health and Human Services, September 2005; Weinstock H, Berman S, Cates W. sexually transmitted disease among young Americans: incidence and spread of estimates, 2000. Perspect Sex Reprod health. 2004; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Sexually Transmitted Diseases Guidelines on Treatment of 2002. MMWR. 2002; http: //health.nytimes.com/health]
A goiter is an enlargement of the thyroid gland. It's not cancer.
Causes: There are several types of goiter. The simple form can occur without a precise reason, or when the thyroid gland is unable to produce sufficient thyroid hormone to meet the body's needs. That's why the thyroid gland bloats. There are two types of simple grip:
The goiter occurs in groups of people living in areas with poor iodine soil. These regions are usually distant from the sea. People in these communities may not have enough iodine in the diet (it is necessary for the production of thyroid hormones). The use of iodinated salt usually prevents iodine deficiency. However, the lack of iodine is still fairly common in Central Asia, the Andean region of South America and Central Africa. In most sporadic cases of goiter the cause is unknown. Occasionally, some drugs such as lithium or aminoglutethimide may cause a non-toxic goiter. Hereditary factors can cause it. Risk factors include:
Age over 40;
Homemade crayfish cases;
Living in a poor iodine area;
Do not get enough iodine in the diet.
SYMPTOMS: The main symptom is a swelling of the thyroid gland. The size may vary from one small nodule to the very large neck. Thyroid swelling can exert pressure on the trachea and esophagus, which can lead to:
Difficulty of swallowing;
There may be swelling of the vein of the neck and dizziness when the arms are raised above the head.
DIAGNOSIS: The doctor examines the neck in the act of ingestion, and may be able to feel a swelling in the affected area. Exams that can be made include:
Free thyroxine (T4);
Hormone Stress Thyroid (TSH);
If the nodules are available with the ultrasound, a biopsy should be made to verify the presence of thyroid cancer.
THERAPY: If it is a simple goiter, it is only necessary to treat it if it causes other symptoms. In the case of thyroid problems, the treatment includes:
Radioactive iodine to deflate the gland;
Surgery (thyroidectomy) to eliminate the whole or part of the gland;
Small doses of iodine Lugol or potassium, if the goiter is due to iodine deficiency;
Thyroid therapy complete if thyroid is due to the thyroid.
PROGNOSIS: A simple goiter can disappear alone, or it can become bigger. Over time, it can cause the destruction of the thyroid gland. This condition is called hypothyroidism. Occasionally, a goiter can become toxic and produce thyroid hormones alone. This can cause high levels of thyroid hormone, a condition called hyperthyroidism. Possible complications may be:
Difficulty in swallowing or breathing;
Toxic nodular goiter.
Contact a doctor in case of any swelling in the front of the neck or any other symptom of goiter.
PREVENTION: The use of iodinated salt prevents endemic colloid goitre.
Sources: [J. Vanderpas nutritional epidemiology and thyroid hormone metabolism. Ann Rev Nutr. 2006; AACE / AME. American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists and Endocrinologist Medical Association. Guidelines for clinical practice physicians for the diagnosis and management of thyroid nodules. Endocr Pract. 2006; http://health.nytimes.com/health/; Ladenson P, Kim M. Thyroid. In: Goldman L and Ausiello D, eds. Goldman: Cecil Medicina. 23a ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders, 2007]
Ectopic pregnancy is an abnormal pregnancy that occurs outside the uterus. The baby (fetus) can not survive, and often does not develop at all in this type of pregnancy.
Causes: Ectopic pregnancy occurs when a pregnancy begins outside the uterus. The most common site is within one of Fallopian tubes. However, in rare cases, ectopic pregnancies may occur in the ovaries, stomach or cervix.
Ectopic pregnancy is often caused by a condition that blocks or slows the movement of a fertilized egg through the Fallopian tube to the uterus. This can be caused by a physical blockage in the tube from hormonal factors and other factors, such as smoking. Most cases are caused by:
Previous infection in fallopian tubes;
Fallopian tube surgery. Up to 50% of women who have ectopic pregnancies have inflammation of fallopian tubes (salpingitis) or pelvic inflammatory disease. Some extrauterine pregnancies may be due to:
Fallopian tube failures;
Complications of a broken appendix;
Cutters caused by previous pelvic surgery.
The following risk factors increase the chance of ectopic pregnancy:
Be more than 35 years old;
Have many sex partners;
In vitro fertilization;
Operation to reverse tubular sterilization;
Defective intrauterine device.
In some cases the cause is unknown. It is more likely that ectopic pregnancies will occur 2 or more years after the surgical procedure that follows it.
SYMPTOMS: The most common are:
Abnormal vaginal bleeding;
Cramps on one side of the pelvis;
Pain in the lower abdomen or pelvic area.
If the area of the pregnancy is abnormal and bleeds, the symptoms may become worse. They may include:
Fear or fainting sensation;
Intense pressure in the rectum;
Pain that is felt in the shoulder area;
Strong, acute and sudden pain in the lower abdomen.
Internal hemorrhage due to a breakthrough could lead to low blood pressure and fainting in about one woman to 10.
DIAGNOSIS: Your doctor will do a pelvic examination that may show molars in the pelvic area. Tests that can be performed include:
Quantitative Blood Testing;
Progesterone serum levels;
Transvaginal ultrasound or ultrasound pregnancy;
Counting white blood cells.
A quantitative increase in HCG levels can help distinguish a normal pregnancy from an extrauterine. High-level women should have a vaginal ultrasound to identify a normal pregnancy. Other tests that can be used to confirm the diagnosis are:
THERAPY: Ectopic pregnancies can not continue. The developing cells should be removed to save the mother's life. You will need medical care if the area of ectopic pregnancy breaks down and this can lead to shock. Shock treatment may include:
Endovene administered fluids;
Raise your legs.
If there is a rupture, a laparotomy is made to stop the loss of blood. This intervention is also done for:
Confirm an extra-uterine pregnancy;
Remove abnormal pregnancy;
Repair any damage to the fabric.
In some cases, your doctor may need to remove the fallopian tube. Minilaparotomy and laparoscopy are the most common surgical treatments for untreated ectopic pregnancy. If your doctor does not think there is a break, a drug called methotrexate may be given. Blood tests and liver function tests can be performed.
PROBLEMS: One third of women who have had extra-uterine pregnancy are then able to have a baby. A repeated ectopic pregnancy may occur in one third of women. Some women are no longer pregnant. The probability of a successful pregnancy depends on:
If you have had children;
Reason why the first ectopic pregnancy has occurred.
The death rate due to extrauterine pregnancy is less than 0.1%. Possible complications can be broken with internal hemorrhage leading to shock. Death by breaking is rare.
Contact a doctor if you have symptoms of ectopic pregnancy.
PREVENTION: Most forms of ectopic pregnancy that occur outside fallopian tubes are probably not preventable. However, a tubal pregnancy (the most common type of ectopic pregnancy) can be prevented in some cases, avoiding conditions that could heal the Fallopian tubes. You can reduce the risk:
By avoiding risk factors for pelvic inflammatory disease, such as having many sexual partners, having sex without condom, and having sexually transmitted diseases;
With early diagnosis and treatment of sexually transmitted diseases;
With early diagnosis and treatment of salpingitis;
Contact your doctor for more information. The information provided on (what the health) is of a general nature and for purely disclosure purposes can in no way replace the advice of a physician (or a legally qualified person) or, in specific cases, of other operators health.