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Female infertility-Male infertility-Influenza-Pituitary Infarction


art of the brain. It is also called cerebral infarction. There are several types:

Arterial malformation;
Ictus haemorrhagic
A stroke is a break in blood supply to any pcked;
Secondary carotid dissection Ictus;
Secondary carotid stenosis secondary;
Secondary Ictus for cocaine consumption;
Secondary Ictus for foot-and-mouth disease (fibromuscular dysplasia);
Secondary syphilis Ictus.
Causes: A stroke may occur when the following conditions are met:

A blood vessel that provides blood to the brain is blo
 by a blood clot (ischemic stroke);
A blood vessel breaks down, causing blood loss in the brain (hemorrhagic infarction);
If blood flow is interrupted for more than a few seconds, the brain may not get blood and oxygen. The brain cells can thus die, causing permanent damage.
Ischemic stroke is the most common type of stroke. Usually this kind of stroke results from the artery's tightening, a condition called atherosclerosis. Fat, cholesterol and other substances accumulated on the wall of the arteries, form a sticky substance called plaque. Over time, plaque builds up. This makes it difficult to have adequate blood flow, and can lead to blood clotting. There are two types of clots: what happens in the brain (cerebral thrombus) and what happens elsewhere but moves through the blood and ends up in the brain (cerebral embolism). Other causes of ischemic stroke are:

Anomalous cardiac valve;
Inflammation of the inner lining of the heart and chambers of cardiac valves (endocarditis);
Mechanical cardiac valve.
A clot can be formed on a heart valve, break it and travel to the brain. For this reason, people with mechanical or abnormal heart valves often need to take blood thinners.

Hemorrhagic stroke may occur when small blood vessels in the brain become weak and burst. Some people have defects in the blood vessels that make this more likely. The blood flow that occurs after the breakdown of blood vessels damages the brain cells. The following conditions may increase the risk of stroke:

Stroke family cases;
heart disease;
High cholesterol;
Some blood clotting medications or contraceptive pills make stroke more likely, especially among women who smoke and who are over the age of 35. Men have more infarction than women, but women have a risk of stroke during pregnancy and in the week immediately after pregnancy. The risk of bleeding in the brain is increased by:

Use of alcohol;
Hemorrhagic disorders;
Cocaine consumption;
Head trauma.
SYMPTOMS: Symptoms of stroke depend on which part of the brain is damaged. In some cases, a person may also not be aware of having had a stroke. Symptoms usually develop suddenly and without notice. They may be episodic or may slowly deteriorate over time. They may be:

Change of vigilance (or consciousness like coma, lethargy and drowsiness);
Difficulty in speaking or understanding others;
Difficulty swallowing;
Difficulty in writing or reading;
Headache (worsened when it is upright, just awake, if you change position, curve, or if you cough);
Loss of coordination;
Loss of balance;
Changes in movements, usually on one side of the body;
Difficulty in movement in any part of the body;
Loss of motor skills;
Nausea or vomiting;
Weight loss;
Changes in sensations, usually on one side of the body;
Decreasing feelings;
Numbness or tingling;
Weakness in any part of the body;
Changes in view;
Decreasing view;
Loss of all or part of sight.
DIAGNOSIS: Symptoms are important when it comes to diagnosing a stroke. They can be serious at first, or they can get worse slowly or occur episodically. A neurological examination may suggest an increase in intracranial pressure or decreased brain function. Specific symptoms can help to understand the part of the brain involved. An examination of the eyes may have an optic nerve swelling in the brain, or there may be changes in eye movement. Abnormal reflexes may be present. The doctor may hear abnormal noise, called "bruit", when using a stethoscope to listen to the carotid arteries in the neck. Tests can help your doctor determine the type, position, and cause of stroke and exclude other pathologies that may be responsible for the symptoms. Tests may include:

Angiogram of the head to see which of the blood vessels is blocked or bleed and help the doctor decide if the artery can be reopened using a thin tube;
Blood-coagulation test; electrocardiogram to diagnose underlying heart disorders; ecocardiogram; duplex carotid (ultrasound type); computerized tomography or magnetic head resonance imaging or magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) or TC angiography ; Heart monitoring to determine if there is an irregular heartbeat. TERAPIA: A stroke is a medical emergency. Immediate treatment can save lives and reduce disability. It is important to bring the person to the emergency room immediately to determine if the stroke is due to bleeding or a blood clot. Therapy can be initiated appropriately within 3 hours of stroke. Treatment depends on severity and cause. A hospital admission is required for most cases. Thrombolytic drugs such as tPA can be assigned if the attack is caused by a blood clot. Helps restore the flow of blood to the damaged area. People who receive thrombolytics are less likely to have long-term problems. However, not everyone can receive this type of medicine. The most important rule is that the person to be examined is treated by a stroke specialist within 3 hours after the symptoms begin. If the cause is a haemorrhage, thrombolytics can worsen the damage. In other circumstances, diluents such as heparin and Coumadin are used to treat attacks due to blood clots. Aspirin can also be used. Other medications may be needed to control other symptoms, including high blood pressure. Analgesics can be given to control a strong headache. Nutrients and fluids may be needed, especially if the person has difficulty swallowing. These can be administered intravenously or with a supply tube in the stomach. The difficulty of swallowing can be temporary or permanent. For hemorrhagic cases, surgery is often needed to eliminate blood from the brain and repair damaged blood vessels. The goal of long-term treatment is to help the patient recover as many functions as possible and prevent future stroke. The recovery time and the need for long-term therapy is different from person to person. Depending on the symptoms, rehabilitation may include: Occupational Therapy; Physical Therapy; Logotherapy. Therapies such as repositioning and range of exercise exercises can help prevent stinging complications, such as bed infection and bedsores. Those who had a stroke should try to stay physically active. Alternative forms of communication such as verbal images and other techniques may be necessary in some cases. Those taking care of the sick may need to show pictures to the person, repeatedly demonstrate how to perform different tasks, or use other communication strategies, depending on the type and range of language problems. Family counseling can help address the changes needed for home care. PROGNOSIS: The prospects of healing depend on the type of stroke and the speed of hospitalization. Recovery can take place completely, or there may be some permanent loss of function. Possible complications may be: Aspiration of a food in the airways; Decreased life; Difficulty in communication; Continuous loss of brain function; Permanent loss of circulation or sensation in one or more parts of the body; Problems due to loss of mobility, including Contraction and contraction wounds, fractures, malnutrition, muscle spasticity, reduced capacity, reduced social interactions, undesirable side effects of drugs. PREVENTION: To help prevent a stroke: Avoid fatty foods. Do not drink more than 1 or 2 alcoholic drinks a day; Exercise regularly: 30 minutes a day if you are not overweight, 60 to 90 minutes a day if you are overweight; Keep your blood pressure under control once or twice a year, especially if there are family cases of hypertension; Check cholesterol; Stop smoking. Aspirin therapy (81mg per day or 100mg on alternate days) is recommended For the prevention of stroke in women under the age of 65 until the benefits outweigh the risks. It should be considered for women over the age of 65 only if the blood pressure is controlled and the benefit is higher than the risk of gastrointestinal bleeding and cerebral hemorrhage. Your doctor may also recommend blood aspiration therapy or another diluent if you have had transient ischemia or stroke in the past or if you are currently experiencing: Congestive heart failure, heart beat
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Ictus haemorrhagic

Hemorrhagic stroke involves bleeding inside the brain, which damages tissues close to the brain.

Causes: Hemorrhagic stroke occurs when a blood vessel bursts inside the brain. The brain is very sensitive to bleeding and the damage can occur very quickly. Bleeding irritates the brain tissue, causing swelling and accumulation in a mass called hematoma. Hemorrhage also increases the pressure on the brain and presses against the skull.

Siamese twins are separated and meet for the first time!
Hemorrhagic stroke is grouped according to the position of the blood vessel:

Intracerebral haemorrhage: bleeding in the brain;
Subarachnoid haemorrhage: Bleeding in the area between the brain and the thin tissues that cover the brain.
Hemorrhagic stroke is most often caused by high pressure, which presses against the walls of the arteries until they break. Other causes of haemorrhagic stroke are:

Aneurysms that create a weak spot in an arterial wall that can explode;
Abnormal connections between arteries and veins, such as arteriovenous malformation;
Cancer, especially that spread to the brain by distant organs such as the breast and thyroid;
Brain amyloid angiopathy, an accumulation of amyloid protein inside the walls of the arteries in the brain, making it more likely to bleed;
Conditions or medications (such as aspirin or warfarin);
Drugs like cocaine.
SYMPTOMS: Symptoms vary depending on the position of hemorrhage and the amount of stroke affected. Symptoms usually develop suddenly, without notice, and often during the activity. They can go and come (episodes) or slowly worsen over time. Symptoms may include:

Change of attention (apathy, coma, lethargy, drowsiness, stunning, unconsciousness);
Difficulty talking or understanding others;
Difficulty of swallowing;
Difficulty in writing or reading;
Headaches that occur when you are lying or awakening and worsen when you change position or when you bend, or in case of cough;
Loss of coordination;
Loss of balance;
Changes in movement, usually on one side of the body;
Difficulty moving any part of the body;
Nausea or vomiting;
Changes in sensitivity, usually on one side of the body;
Numbness or tingling;
Weakness of any part of the body;
Changes in vision as full vision loss or loss.
DIAGNOSIS: A neurological examination is almost always abnormal. The patient may seem sleepy and confused. An eye ophthalmic examination may show abnormal eye movements and changes in the back of the eye. The patient may have abnormal reflexes. However, these results do not necessarily mean that a person is having cerebral hemorrhage and may be caused by another medical condition.

A brain TAC is the most important test to confirm a cerebral hemorrhage. It should be done without delay. A brain magnetic resonance imaging can be made later to better understand what caused the bleeding. Conventional angiography can be done in some cases to identify aneurysms or arteriovenous malformation, though TC and RM are most often used. Other tests may include:

Complete hemocromocytometric examination;
Blood clotting studies (prothrombin time (PT) and partial thromboplastin time (PTT));
Examination of cerebrospinal fluid.
THERAPY: Hemorrhagic stroke requires medical intervention. It can be dangerous for life. The objectives of the treatment are:

Save the life of the person;
Improvement of symptoms;
Repair of the cause of bleeding;
Prevent complications;
Rehabilitation therapy as soon as possible.
The patient is transported to the hospital's intensive care unit where respiration, state of consciousness, saliva or other secretions will be controlled. A breathing tube may need to treat or prevent some problems. Then we will provide:

Check your blood pressure;
Provide drugs for controlling swelling;
Provide drugs for headache relief;
Give anti-epileptic drugs.
The patient will need to rest in bed and avoid activities that can increase the pressure in the head such as:

Sudden change of position;
Effort during defecation.
Nutrients and fluids may be needed, especially if the person has difficulty swallowing. These can be administered endovine, or with a sting into the stomach. Swallowing difficulties can be temporary or permanent.

Sometimes, surgery is needed to save the patient's life or to improve recovery possibilities. The type hemorrhage. Removal of hematoma may be necessary, especially when it occurs at the back of the brain. A common problem related to bleeding in the brain is the hydrocephalus, fluid build-up within the brain. A procedure called ventricolostomy may be needed to drain the fluid. The goal of long-term treatment is to help the patient recover the function as much as possible and avoid future stroke. The recovery time and the need for long-term treatment are different from person to person. Depending on the symptoms, rehabilitation may include: Occupational Therapy; Physical Therapy; Logopedia. Therapies such as repositioning exercises and range of motion can help prevent strokes complications such as decubitus infections and sores. Those who have had a stroke should try to stay as physically as active as possible. Alternative forms of communication such as images, verbal signals, and other techniques may be needed in some cases. Sometimes, urinary catheterization or bladder and intestine control programs may be needed to control incontinence. A safe environment is required. Some people with stroke seem to have no awareness of their environment, while others show indifference or lack of judgment, which increases the need for security measures. Those who take care of them will have to show photos and do other activities to stimulate communication. Home care, nursing homes, daytime care and other techniques may be indispensable. Behavioral modification may be useful for some people in controlling unacceptable or dangerous behaviors. Family counseling can help, legal counseling may be appropriate. PROGNOSIS: Hemorrhagic stroke is less common but more commonly fatal than ischemic stroke. Recovery can take place over time, but with areas of the brain that can be damaged. Death is possible and could soon occur despite medical treatment. Possible complications may be: Decreased social interaction Decreased self-sufficiency Decreased life expectancy Communicating difficulty Joint articulations Muscular spasticity Permanent loss of cognitive or other function (dementia) Permanent loss of movement or Sensation of one or more parts of the body; decubitus wounds due to lack of movement; urinary and respiratory tract infections. Contact one or go to emergency room if symptoms of stroke develop. Emergency symptoms are: Difficulty breathing, Loss of ability to move or swallow, Loss of consciousness, Convulsions, Sudden loss of sensitivity, Sudden changes in mental state, Strong headache, Nausea and vomiting, Decreased vision, Numbness or Tingling. PREVENTION: Prevention is extremely important because treatment for brain-related hemorrhage often can not reverse brain damage. Most cases of haemorrhagic stroke are associated with specific risk factors such as high blood pressure, smoking or cocaine consumption. Checking blood pressure and avoiding smoking and cocaine can reduce the risk of cerebral hemorrhage. Surgery to correct the anomalies of blood vessels, such as aneurysms, is sometimes recommended to prevent bleeding.of surgery depends on the specific cause of the e


Incontinence is defined as involuntary and uncontrolled loss of urine or done in socially unmanageable conditions. Even though you are affected, you feel embarrassed, it is a fairly common condition. In Italy it is estimated that about 3 million women and half a million men are affected. It does not affect life expectancy, but only quality.

Causes: There are many causes for incontinence, the most common of which is age. The other are:

Injury during childbirth;
Surgical interventions with slight damage aggravated with age;
Physical stress;
Bladder hyperactivity (a sudden need to urinate even if there is no real urgency);
Some psychiatric disorders;
Prostate hypertrophy (the bladder is not completely emptied during urination, so there are small losses at later stages).
SYMPTOMS: You need excessive and urgent urination / defecation or do it in places where this is not possible. It goes from the mild form in which they can not only contain the gas to the worst one in which incontinence is total.

DIAGNOSIS: As with many other diseases, the first step taken by a physician is a careful medical history. You evaluate the diary (how many times a day you go to the bathroom), the amount of fluid you take and the time you take them and the time you go to the bathroom. Breastfeeding or gynecological interventions are also evaluated in women. Then you go to an urodynamic study which is an examination by which you evaluate endovascular volumes and pressures or an analysis of the anal region with ultrasound catheters and probes. You may also need a radiograph.

THERAPY: Very often, medicines are used, but associated with gymnastics for the pelvic area. The most commonly used drugs are Duloxetine and constipated drugs, and are used more to treat colitis or other inflammation that may cause incontinence. This eliminates or at least reduces the most serious symptoms. It may also be advisable to change your diet. In the most severe cases, surgery may be used (colostomy), dynamic graciloplasty (moving a leg muscle to feed the anus) or reconstruction work, especially in cases of incontinence due to previous surgical errors or complications in childbirth . Artificial sphincter can also be reached. Other therapies are stimulation of the sacral nerve and perineal chinesiterapia.

PREVENTION: Primary prevention is to control weight and quit smoking. For stress incontinence, avoid unnecessary efforts, especially if you are at middle age, to repair urinary tract disorders due to birth, constant prostate control in men, and exercise.

Pituitary Infarction

Hypopharyal infarction is the death of a tissue area in the pituitary gland, a small hypothalamus gland (part of the brain). Hypophysis produces numerous hormones that control the essential processes of the body.

Causes: Hypophagic infarction is most commonly caused by hemorrhage due to a non-cancers of the pituitary gland. When this occurs with bleeding in a woman during or immediately after childbirth, she is called Sheehan's syndrome. Hypofunctional risk factors include:

Eye to too hot drinks: they would increase the risk of cancer
It is supported by a study by the International Agency for Research on Cancer
Coagulation disorders;
Head injuries;
Radiation to the pituitary gland;
Using a breathing machine.
In most cases, the cause is unclear.

SYMPTOMS: Hypophagic infarction is usually a short period of symptom (acute phase) but can be life-threatening. The symptoms usually include:

Severe headaches;
Paralysis of eye muscles resulting in double vision (ophthalmoplegia);
Low blood pressure, nausea and acute vomiting due to adrenal insufficiency.
Less commonly, pituitary dysfunction may appear slower. For example, in Sheehan syndrome, the first symptom may be a lack of milk production due to a lack of prolactin. Over time, problems with other pituitary hormones may develop, causing the following symptoms:

Growth hormone deficiency with fatigue, increased abdominal fat or lack of energy;
Hypurrenalism (if not present or cared for);
Inability to cope with physical stress;
Hypogonadism with periods of menstrual absence in women or sexual dysfunction and loss of muscle mass in men;
Hypothyroidism with cold intolerance, constipation, depression, dry skin, fatigue, change in hair or skin;
Changes in the menstrual cycle;
Mental retardation;
Weight gain.
When the back pituitary gland is involved (seldom), the symptoms may include:

The lack of contraction of the uterus needed to give birth to a child;
Lack of breast milk production;
Uncontrolled rash.
DIAGNOSIS: Signs of acute pituitary infarction may include:

Low blood pressure;
Visual field defects.
Signs of chronic hepatic dysfunction are:

Growth hormone deficiency with muscle mass loss;
Problems with fat metabolism (dyslipidemia);
Hypurrenalism with low blood pressure or poor response to stress and infections;
Hypothyroidism with delayed reflexes.
Tests may include:

Bone density;
Eye exams;
Magnetic resonance or TAC.
Blood tests will be done to control the levels of:

Growth Hormone;
C Somatomedin (IGF-1).
THERAPY: Treatment for acute pituitary infarction may require surgery to relieve pressure on the pituitary gland and improve vision. In severe cases, emergency surgery is required. Immediate treatment with substitution of adrenal hormones (glucocorticoids) is essential. Other hormones will be replaced as sex (estrogen and testosterone) or thyroid hormone.

PROGNOSIS: Acute hypofunctional heart disease may be life-threatening. The prospects of healing are good for people with chronic scarcity who are diagnosed and cured. Possible complications may include:

Adrenal Crisis;
Loss of sight.
If other missing hormones are not replaced, hypothyroidism and hypogonadism may develop. Contact a doctor if you have any symptoms of chronic hepatic dysfunction or if you have other symptoms such as:

Weakness to one eye;
Low blood pressure (which can cause fainting);
He retched.
Particular concern is the development of these symptoms if a pituitary tumor has already been diagnosed.

Female infertility

Infertility is the inability of a couple to have a pregnancy after 12 months of unprotected relationships.

Causes: Primary infertility is the term used to describe a couple who has never been able to conceive a pregnancy after at least one year of unprotected relationships. Secondary infertility describes couples who have had at least one pregnancy, but have not been able to reach a new one.

The causes of infertility include a wide range of physical and emotional factors. About 30-40% of cases of infertility are due to a "male" factor (male infertility); 40-50% have a "female" factor that can be scarring from sexually transmitted or endometriosis, ovulation dysfunction, poor nutrition, hormonal imbalances, ovarian cysts, pelvic infections, tumors, or abnormalities of the cervical transport system Uterine through the fallopian tubes. The remaining 10 to 30% of infertility cases can be caused by factors that contribute to either partner, or no cause can be identified.

It is estimated that 10-20% of couples are unable to get pregnant after 1 year of attempts. It is important that pregnancy be attempted for at least one year. Pregnancy opportunities that occur in healthy pairs under 30 and have regular relationships is only 25-30% per month. The peak of a woman's fertility occurs around the age of 20. Beyond the 35 (and especially after 40 years), the chances of getting pregnant drops to less than 10% per month. In addition to age-related factors, increased risk for infertility is due to:

Multiple sexual partners (increases the risk for sexually transmitted diseases);
Sexually transmitted diseases;
Pelvic inflammatory disease;
Exposure to diethylstilbestrol;
Food disturbances;
Anovulatory menstrual cycles;
Uterine defects (miomi) or obstruction of the uterus;
Chronic illnesses such as diabetes.
SYMPTOMS: The most common are:

Inability to get pregnant;
A range of emotional reactions from one or both of the couple's members. Generally, such reactions are greater among the paired children. Having at least one baby tends to soften these painful emotions.
DIAGNOSIS: A complete story and a physical examination of both partners is essential. Women's tests may include:

Measurement of the basal body temperature;
Monitoring changes in the cervical mucus during the menstrual cycle;
Post-cytological test to evaluate spermatozoic-cervical mucus interaction;
Measurement of plasma progesterone (a blood test);
Uterine lining biopsy (endometriosis);
Measurement of the amount of luteinizing hormone in the urine;
Progesterone test;
Hormonal levels of blood (blood tests) for one or both partners;
Pelvic examination to determine if there are cysts.
THERAPY: Treatment depends on the cause of infertility. May entail:

Easy education and counseling;
Drugs for the treatment of infections or for the promotion of ovulation;
Highly sophisticated medical procedures such as in vitro fertilization.
It is important for the couple to recognize and discuss the emotional impact that infertility has on them as individuals and together consult a physician.

PROGNOSIS: A cause can be determined in 85-90% of sterile pairs. Appropriate therapy (not including advanced techniques such as in vitro fertilization) allows pregnancy to occur in 50-60% of cases. Without any treatment, 15-20% of previously diagnosed infertile couples get pregnant.

PREVENTION: Because infertility is often caused by sexually transmitted diseases, practicing safer sex can minimize the risk of infertility in the future. Gonorrhea and chlamydia are the two most common causes of infertility related to sexually transmitted diseases. Some diseases are often asymptomatic at first such as salpingitis that develops inflammatory processes that cause scars in Fallopian tubes and decrease fertility, or lead to absolute sterility, or a greater incidence of ectopic pregnancy.

Some forms of birth control, such as the intrauterine device, involve a higher risk of infertility. However, the device is not recommended to women who have never had a child. Early diagnosis and treatment of endometriosis may decrease the risk of infertility.

Male infertility

Primary infertility describes couples who have never been able to have a pregnancy after at least 1 year of unprotected sexual intercourse. Secondary infertility describes couples who have had a pregnancy, but have not been able to have another.

Causes: The causes of infertility include a wide range of physical and emotional factors. The infertility of a couple may be due to female factors, male factors, or both. Male infertility may be due to:

Eye to too hot drinks: they would increase the risk of cancer
It is supported by a study by the International Agency for Research on Cancer
A decrease in the number of spermatozoa;
Sperm blocked before release;
They perpetuate that they do not work properly.
These three factors can be caused by:

Environmental pollutants;
Exposure to high heat for prolonged periods;
Genetic abnormalities;
Frequent use of alcohol, marijuana or cocaine;
Hormone deficiency or too many hormones;
Infections of the testicles or epididymis;
Old age;
Previous chemotherapy;
Previous infections (including sexually transmitted diseases), traumas or surgery;
Radiation exposure;
Retrograde ejaculation;
Surgery or trauma;
Using drugs.
In healthy people under the age of 30 who have sex regularly, the chance of pregnancy is only 25-30% per month. The fertility peak of a woman occurs around the age of 20. Over 35 (and especially after 40 years), the chances of getting pregnant fall to less than 10% per month. Help for infertility depends on age.

SYMPTOMS: The physical symptom of infertility is the inability to have a pregnancy. Living infertility can lead to a range of painful emotions in one or both of the couple's members. In general, having at least one son tends to soften these painful emotions.

DIAGNOSIS: A complete medical history and a physical examination of both partners is essential. Tests for men may include semen analysis and testicular biopsy (rarely performed).

THERAPY: Increase your chances of getting pregnant every month by having sexual intercourse at least once every 3 days in the previous weeks and during the expected time of ovulation. Ovulation occurs about 2 weeks before the next menstrual period. So if you have a cycle every 28 days, you must have sex at least every 3 days between the 7th and the 18th day after the cycle. Treatment depends on the cause of infertility and may result in:

Training and counseling;
Medical procedures such as intrauterine insemination and in vitro fertilization;
Medications for the treatment of infections and clotting disorders, or to promote ovulation.
It is important to recognize and discuss the emotional impact that infertility has on you and your partner, and contact your doctor.

PROGNOSIS: A cause can be determined for about 80-85% of sterile pairs. Getting the right therapy (excluding advanced techniques like in vitro fertilization) allows pregnancy to occur in 50-60% of sterile pairs. Without any treatment, 15-20% of infertile couples can get pregnant.

Possible complications, although infertility does not cause physical illness, may be:

A strong emotional impact on couples and individuals;
Problems with marriage;
Depression and anxiety.
Contact a doctor if you can not get pregnant.

PREVENTION: Since sexually transmitted diseases are often the cause of infertility, practicing safer sex can minimize the risk. Gonorrhea and chlamydia are the two most common causes of infertility related to sexually transmitted diseases. Some of them have no symptoms at first, such as salpingitis that occurs in the fallopian tubes of the fallopian tubes and leads to reduced fertility, infertility, or increased risk of ectopic pregnancy.

Obtaining a vaccine against mumps in humans has been shown to prevent mumps and its complications, orchitis. The vaccine prevents infertility linked to the parotitis.

Salivary gland infection

Salivary gland infection

An infection in salivary glands is a disorder caused by a viral or bacterial infection.

CAUSES: Salivary glands produce saliva that dampens food to help chew and swallow. Saliva contains enzymes that start the digestion process, also helps in mechanical cleaning of the mouth by washing away bacteria and food particles, keeping the mouth moist, and helps maintain prosthetic or orthodontic appliances in place.

The ears continue to keep Neymar out of play

After skipping the two matches valid for the Spanish Super Cup against Athletic Bilbao, it seems that the Barcelona striker is forced to stay at home even for the first game of the Liga against the same opponents.
There are 3 pairs of saliva glands. The two largest are the parotid glands, one for each cheek on the jaw in front of the ears. Two submandibular glands are at the back of the mouth on both sides of the jaw. Two sublingual glands are under the base of the mouth.

All salivary glands release saliva in the mouth through the pipes that open in various areas of the mouth. Parotitis is an inflammation of one or both parotid salivary glands. This is a common disease. Viral infections like parotitis often affect the salivary glands (the ears most often affect the parotid glands). This form of mumps is now much more rare in children thanks to the vaccine. Bacterial infections are usually the result of obstruction (such as salivary duct calculations) or poor oral hygiene.

SYMPTOMS: The most common are:

Swelling of the face (especially in front of the ears, below the mandible, or on the palate);
Dry mouth;
Abnormal flavors or loss of taste;
Mouth or facial pain, especially when eating;
Decreased ability to open the mouth;
DIAGNOSIS: An examination by a doctor or dentist shows swollen salivary glands. The pus can fall into the mouth. The gland can hurt, especially due to bacterial infections. Viral infections such as mumps can cause painful swelling of the glands.

THERAPY: In some cases, no treatment is required. If there is pus or fever, or if the infection is known and is presumed to be bacterial, antibiotics may be prescribed. Antibiotics are not effective against viral infections. Good oral hygiene, with thoroughly brushing teeth with toothbrush and dental floss at least twice a day, can help heal and help prevent the spread of infection. If you are a smoker, quit smoking as this helps in recovery.

Hot rinses with salt water (half a teaspoon of salt in a glass of water) can relax and keep your mouth wet. Drink plenty of water and use non-sugar lemon drops to increase saliva flow and reduce swelling.

PROBLEMS: Most salivary gland infections spontaneously heal or are cured with the treatment. Complications are not common but may occur and may be:

Abscess of saliva gland;
Localized spread of bacterial infection (cellulite, Ludwig's angina);
Recurrence of infection.
Contact a doctor if the symptoms of salivary gland infection are present, or if the infection has already been diagnosed and the symptoms get worse, especially if fever increases, or there is difficulty breathing or swallowing (these may be symptoms of emergency ).


Influenza is a common viral infection during the winter months. It has a sudden onset of symptoms, including fever, sore throat, and muscle aches.

Causes: It is a viral infection caused by the influenza virus. It is transmitted when people breathe liquid droplets containing the virus that spills during the sneezing or coughing of a sick person and spread in the air, or by simply touching objects contaminated with the virus. Possible complications include pneumonia, which often needs hospital care. The virus can cause infections throughout the year, but is more common in the winter. Anyone who can have influence and the more close contact with a person is infected, the greater the likelihood of getting sick.

SYMPTOMS: Influenza suddenly affects the entire body. It lasts for about seven days and, in general, leaves a feeling of exhaustion for the next few weeks. It is different from the common cold, where the symptoms tend to come little by little. It usually only affects the nose, throat and chest. Also, the cold brings weariness for much less time and can be fully recovered in about a week.

THERAPY: These are the best ways to cure the symptoms of flu:

Have abundant rest because the body uses a lot of energy in the fight against infections;
Stay warm;
Make sure you drink plenty of water to avoid dehydration;
Take paracetamol or anti-inflammatory drugs such as ibuprofen in case of high fever so as to relieve headaches and muscle aches;
Drink hot water with lemon, honey and ginger.
Antibiotics are not used to treat the flu because it is caused by a virus. Specific antiviral treatments for flu are available, but in general these are only for high risk individuals with influenza complications.

PREVENTION: Vaccinations for current influenza are marketed every year. It is recommended for people most at risk for viral damage, and in Italy it is free for the elderly over the age of 65, those with chronic or congenital illnesses, women with first-time pregnancy, long-term adolescents, workers in the field Health care and the armed forces. People invited to get the flu vaccine are:

Seniors over the age of 65;
All those who, over six months of age, have lung disease (such as asthma), cardiac, renal, hepatic, diabetes or lower immune system,
Those living in a hazardous area or in a nursing home;
Those who take care of patients at risk of influenza complications.
We recommend vaccination every year. This is because the virus changes slightly. Scientists are constantly studying how to predict virus strains and develop vaccines. Despite popular belief, vaccination can not lead to influenza as it does not contain the active principle of the virus. Flu vaccination is available around October each year. The best way to avoid influenza is to strengthen the immune system by following a healthy diet, making regular exercise, resting well, and not smoking. You should also avoid being too close to people who sneeze or sneeze, especially if they do not cover their nose and mouth. Consult a doctor if you do not get any improvement after a couple of days of therapy, if you are short of breath or if you have blood or large amounts of yellow or green catarrh.

Sources: [http://www.bbc.co.uk/health/]\


Avian Influenza

Avian influenza, better known only as avian, is an influenza virus infection. The disease also affects humans, who do not enjoy any immunity against it. The virus that causes this infection in the birds can easily change to infect the man. Such a mutation can trigger a deadly epidemic.

CAUSES: Avian influenza virus also infect pigs. The virus exchanges genetic information, and this leads to the formation of a new virus. This new virus could infect man and easily spread from person to person. The first avian influenza virus that infected humans occurred in Hong Kong in 1997, during an influenza epidemic. This epidemic was related to chickens and was classified as avian influenza A (H5N1). After the Hong Kong outbreak, the avian influenza virus spread throughout Asia, and in October 2005 it was discovered in poultry in Turkey and Romania. So far, hundreds of people have been infected with the H5N1 virus. Many of them have lost their lives. The larger the surface on which the avian influenza virus spreads, the greater the chance of infection worldwide. People at risk of avian influenza are:

Farmers and other people working with poultry;
Travelers who usually go to the affected countries;
Who manipulates one of the infected birds;
People who eat raw or slightly cooked chicken meat;
Doctors who cure patients with avian influenza.
The highly infectious virus, such as H5N1, has been shown to survive for long periods of time, and infection can begin again by touching one of the contaminated surfaces. Birds that heal from influenza may continue to have the virus inside their body for at least 10 days.

SYMPTOMS: The symptoms of avian influenza in humans depend on the particular strain of the virus. In the case of the H5N1 virus, infections in humans cause the most classic flu-like symptoms, which could include:

Sore throat;
Fever higher than 38 ° C;
Difficulty breathing;
Running nose;
Muscular pain.
DIAGNOSIS: If you think you have been exposed to avian flu, you should notify your doctor before your visit. This will give him the opportunity to take appropriate precautions to protect him and the other patients. In February 2006, the Food and Drug Administration approved a new and faster test for the diagnosis of avian influenza strains in people suspected of having the virus. The test is called Influenza A / H5 (Asian) Virus Real-time RT-PCR Primer and Probe Set. The test gives preliminary results within 4 hours. In the elderly the trials require 2 to 3 days. Your doctor may also perform the following tests:
Chest radiography;
Cultures of the nasopharyngeal cavity load;
Blood analysis;
Auscultation (to detect breath abnormalities).
Other tests can be made to examine the functions of the heart, kidneys and liver.

THERAPY: Several types of avian influenza viruses can cause different symptoms. Therefore, therapy may vary. In general, treatment with oseltamivir (Tamiflu) or zanamivir (Relenza) antiviral medication can make the disease less serious. Oseltamivir can also be prescribed for people living in the same home as avian flu patients. The virus that causes human avian flu appears to be resistant to amantadine and rimantadine antiviral drugs. Therefore these drugs can not be used if there is an outbreak of H5N1. People with severe infection may need a breathing machine. Experts recommend that people with bird flu diagnosis have to be isolated to prevent the virus from spreading easily. The US Food and Drug Administration has approved a vaccine to protect humans from avian influenza. Experts say the vaccine could be used if the current H5N1 virus began to spread among people.

PROGNOSIS: Prognosis depends on the severity of the infection and the type of virus that has caused the flu. The current mortality rate for patients with confirmed H5N1 virus is higher than 50%. The H7N7 outbreak detected in the Netherlands was confirmed in 89 humans, but only one of them died. Another avian influenza virus, called H9N2, was detected in 3 children in Asia; All are healed. Possible complications may be acute respiratory stress pneumonia in case of H5N1 virus infection. The infection from this virus can also lead to sepsis and organ failure.

PREVENTION: Travelers should avoid visiting or eating birds in areas with a bird flu outbreak. People working wiAnd special masks for breathing. Avoid low or no cooked foods. Sources: [US Food and Drug Administration. FDA approves US first human vaccine against avian influenza H5N1 virus. Rockville, MD: National Press Office; April 17, 2007; US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. New laboratory test for avian influenza A / H5 (Asian) diagnostic tests. MMWR. February 3, 2006; http://health.nytimes.com/health/; World Health Organization. Total number of confirmed human cases of avian influenza A / (H5N1) reported by WHO. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization; 2006; Beigel JH, Farrar J, Han AM, et al. Avian Influenza A (H5N1) Infection in humans. N Engl J Med 2005]th birds must use prote clothing

Subclinical hypothyroidism

È una forma lieve di ipotiroidismo, una condizione patologica caratterizzata da una ridotta funzionalità della tiroide, la ghiandola endocrina responsabile della produzione degli ormoni tiroidei (FT3 e FT4). Nell’ipotiroidismo subclinico gli ormoni tiroidei sono ancora nella norma e l’unica spia è un moderato aumento del TSH, l’ormone ipofisario che stimola la tiroide.

SINTOMI: l’ipotiroidismo subclinico, a differenza dell’ipotiroidismo primitivo che comporta sintomi evidenti come stanchezza, dolori muscolari, sonnolenza, inappetenza, aumento di peso, pallore, cute e capelli secchi, mixedema e alterazioni mestruali nella donna, è caratterizzato dall’assenza di sintomi clinici o da scarsa sintomatologia. I pazienti con questa malattia, infatti, hanno livelli normali di FT4 ed elevati livelli di TSH (< 10 microIU/ml). Nella maggior parte dei casi l’ipotiroidismo subclinico resta stabile nel tempo (nel 70-80% a 10 anni), mentre in alcuni casi può regredire, ma anche evolvere verso l’ipotiroidismo conclamato.

CAUSE: le cause più frequenti alla base di questo disturbo sono:

 Tiroidite autoimmune di Hashimoto
Pregressa terapia con radioiodio
Sovradosaggio di farmaci antitiroidei
Terapia con litio
Terapia con amiodarone
Terapia con interferone alfa
La popolazione a maggior rischio di ipotiroidismo subclinico sono:

Pazienti con sindrome di Down
Donne nel post-partum (entro 6 mesi)
Donne in menopausa
Pazienti con familiarità per tireopatie (soprattutto se di sesso femminile)
Pazienti con ipercolesterolemia
Pazienti anziani
Pazienti con scompenso cardiaco o fibrillazione atriale
Pazienti con diabete mellito
Pazienti con malattie autoimmuni (vitiligine, ecc.)
DIAGNOSI: per diagnosticare l’ipotiroidismo subclinico è necessario eseguire il dosaggio del TSH, degli ormoni tiroidei FT3 e FT4 e degli anticorpi  anti tireoperossidasi (AbTPO). Se la patologia viene confermata, si procede con l’ecografia tiroidea per verificare l’eventuale presenza di setti fibrosi, pseudonoduli e aree nodulari iperecogene.

TERAPIA: l’ipotiroidismo subclinico di base non richiede una terapia specifica, ma va sempre trattata in gravidanza, se coesiste un’iperlipidemia non sensibile alla dieta, quando c’è storia di scompenso cardiaco e in caso di segni e sintomi suggestivi per ipotiroidismo. La cura, inoltre, va monitorata per non passare ad un sovradosaggio con il TSH e FT4.


Kuru is a non-existent nervous system disease in the Western world.

Causes: Kuru is an extremely rare disease. It is caused by an infectious protein (prion) that has been found in the human brain tissue contaminated. Kuru is almost exclusively among New Guinea residents who practiced a form of cannibalism where the brain of dead people was eaten as part of a funeral rite.

Kuru causes neurodegenerative changes similar to Creutzfeldt-Jakob's disease. Similar illnesses appear in cows in the form of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), also called mad cow disease, but this time in its human variant. The main risk factor for kuru is to eat the human brain tissue that can contain infectious particles.

SYMPTOMS: Kuru symptoms are:

Coordination issues that can worsen up become serious;
Difficulty walking (cerebellar ataxia);
Difficulty of swallowing;
Tremors and muscle spasms (myoclonus).
The difficulty of swallowing and the inability to feed can lead to malnutrition or infertility. It may take up to 30 years or even longer to begin developing symptoms (incubation period).

DIAGNOSIS: A neurological examination may show changes in coordination and ability to walk.

THERAPY: There is no known treatment for kuru.

PROGNOSIS: Death usually occurs within a year after the first symptoms occur.

Contact a doctor if you have difficulty walking, swallowing or coordination problems. Kuru is extremely rare, so before diagnosing it the doctor will have to exclude other neurological diseases.


Kwashiorkor is a form of malnutrition that occurs when there are not enough protein in the diet.

CAUSE: kwashiorkor is more common in areas where there are famines, limited food supply and low levels of education that do not allow you to understand how to follow an appropriate diet. This disease is more common in very poor countries. It often occurs during droughts or other natural disasters, or during political disorder.

Eye to too hot drinks: they would increase the risk of cancer
It is supported by a study by the International Agency for Research on Cancer
Kwashiorkor is very rare in Western children, although isolated cases have also been reported in elderly nursing homes that did not provide adequate nutrition. When kwashiorkor occurs in the West, it is usually a sign of abuse and gross neglect.

SYMPTOMS: The most common are:

Skin pigmentation changes;
Coma (advanced stage);
Decreased muscle mass;
Lack of weight gain and growth;
Hair changes (change in color or texture);
Increase in infections that damage the immune system;
Large belly protruding;
Lethargy or apathy;
Muscle mass loss;
Skin rash (dermatitis);
Shock (advanced phase);
Swelling (edema).
DIAGNOSIS: Physical examination may show an enlarged liver (hepatomegaly) and general swelling. Tests may include:

Arterial emogasalysis;
Complete hemocromocytometric examination;
Clearance of creatinine;
Serum creatinine;
Potassium serum;
Total protein levels;
Urine analysis.
THERAPY: Having more calories and proteins will correct the kwashiorkor, if the treatment started pretty early. However, children with this condition will never reach normal height and growth. Treatment depends on the severity of the condition. People who are in shock state need immediate treatment to restore blood volume and maintain blood pressure. Calories are first given in the form of carbohydrates, simple and fat sugars. Proteins are given after other sources of calories have already supplied energy. Vitamin and mineral supplements are essential.

Since the person will have been without much food for a long time, eating can cause problems, especially if the calories are too high at first. Food should be reintroduced slowly. Carbohydrates are given as the first energy supply, followed by protein foods. Many malnourished children will develop lactose intolerance. They will need to be supplemented with the lactase enzyme so they can tolerate milk.

PROGNOSIS: Early treatment usually leads to good results. Treating kwashiorkor in its late phase can improve the general health of the child, but it can nevertheless show permanent physical and mental problems. If treatment is not given or arrives too late, this condition becomes life-threatening. Possible complications may be:

Permanent mental and physical disabilities;
Contact a doctor if the child has symptoms of kwashiorkor.

PREVENTION: To avoid kwashiorkor, make sure your diet contains enough carbohydrates, fat (at least 10% of total calories) and proteins (12% of total calories).


Hypotonia is a decrease in muscle tone. It is often a sign of a worrying problem, such as a central nervous system problem, genetic disorder, or muscle ailment. It can strike children or adults in the same way. Hypnoton babies are flaccid and, to the touch, they are like a "penny doll". They stay with their elbows and their knees extended, while children with normal tone tend to have elbows and knees bent. Head control may be inadequate or absent, with head always bent on one side, back, or forward. Normal-born babies can be lifted from the mother by putting their hands under the armpits, while the hypotonic babies tend to slip because the baby puts her arms up, becoming elusive.

Causes: The main causes can be:

Aicardi Syndrome;
Canavan's disease;
Congenital hypothyroidism;
Congenital cerebellar atassium;
Down syndrome;
Family Disapproval (Riley-Day Syndrome);
Infantile Botulism;
Kernicter (brain damage caused by severe jaundice);
Klinefelter's syndrome;
Krabbe's disease;
Marfan syndrome;
Menkes syndrome;
Methachromatic leukodystrophy;
Acidemia Metilmalonica;
Muscular dystrophy;
Miastenia grave;
Myotonic dystrophy;
Phelan-McDermid syndrome;
Prader-Willi syndrome;
Type 1 spinal muscular atrophy (Werdnig-Hoffman);
Tay-Sachs's disease;
Trisomy 13;
Reaction to some vaccine.
DIAGNOSIS: Your doctor will perform a physical examination and ask questions about symptoms to the patient's family to make the medical history. Physical examination will probably include a detailed description of the nervous and muscular system. Diagnostic tests may vary depending on the cause of the suspected hypotonia. Most conditions associated with hypotonia also cause other symptoms that together suggest a particular disorder. It is also possible to perform electromyography and muscle biopsy.

THERAPY: Therapy is based on a hormonal cure (eg thyroid hormone), methionine, folic acid, and a diet to prevent obesity. It is very important that there is complete patient care. Much care should be taken when lifting and transporting a person with hypotonia to avoid causing damage. It is possible to recite the word to a sick person through speech therapy and teach him to move with physiotherapy. Contact a doctor if the baby looks soft, especially if it previously seemed to have normal muscle control.

PROGNOSIS: It is possible that hypotonia goes with age, if present from birth.

Sources: [Yeh PC, Kipp MA. A case of Moebius syndrome, in association with Klinefelter's syndrome. Ophthalmic Genet. 2002; books.google.it; www.ust.it; http://health.nytimes.com/health/; aislo.negrisud.it]

Contact your doctor for more information. The information provided on (what the health) is of a general nature and for purely disclosure purposes can in no way replace the advice of a physician (or a legally qualified person) or, in specific cases, of other operators health.


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