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Pharyngitis-Cranial fracture-photophobia

Pulmonary fibrosis

Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis affects scars or thickening of the lungs without a known cause.

Causes: Nobody knows what causes pulmonary fibrosis or why some people get ill. It causes scarring and stiffening in the lungs. This stiffening makes it increasingly difficult to breathe. In some people the disease worsens rapidly (over the course of months or years), in others the worsening is very slow. The condition is believed to be the result of an inflammatory response to an unknown substance. "Idiopathic" means no cause can be found. Disease occurs more often in people between 50 and 70 years of age.

SYMPTOMS: The most common are:

Chest pain;
Cough (usually dry);
Decreasing tolerance for activity;
Lack of breath during activity that lasts for months or years and over time also occurs at rest.
DIAGNOSIS: Your doctor will perform a physical examination and ask questions about medical history, including possible exposure to asbestos. Patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis have abnormal sounds during their breathing called cramps. At the advanced stage, blue skin (cyanosis) may appear around the mouth or nails due to the shortage of oxygen. Examination of the fingers of your hands and feet may show abnormal enlargement of the nail base. Tests that help diagnose idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis are
Bronchoscopy with transbronchial biopsy;
Computerized tomography of the chest;
Chest radiography;
Measurement of the level of oxygen in the blood;
Pulmonary function test;
Surgical pulmonary biopsy;
Test for connective tissue diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, or scleroderma.
THERAPY: There is no cure for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Medications such as corticosteroids and cytotoxic drugs can be given to reduce swelling (inflammation), but these treatments usually do not work. Oxygen is administered to patients who have low levels of oxygen in the blood.

Some patients with pulmonary fibrosis may need a lung transplant. Rehabilitation of the lung does not cure the disease but can help maintain the ability to live normally.

PROGNOSIS: Some patients can improve when treated with corticosteroids or cytotoxic drugs, but in most people the disease may worsen even with treatment. This worsening can happen quickly or very slowly. Possible complications may be:

Chronic Ipossiemia (low blood oxygen level);
Pulmonary heart;
Polycythemia (abnormally high levels of red blood cells);
Pulmonary hypertension;
Respiratory failure.
Contact a doctor if you develop cough or shortness of breath.

PREVENTION: Avoiding smoking can help prevent this condition, but you do not know how to avoid the cause.

[Source: Ny Times]

Contact your doctor for more information. The information provided on (what the health) is of a general nature and for purely disclosure purposes can in no way replace the advice of a physician (or a legally qualified person) or, in specific cases, of other operators health.


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Gastrointestinal Fistula

A gastrointestinal fistula is an abnormal opening that allows the contents of the stomach or intestine to come out. If it comes out to other organs, it is called entero-enteric fistula. If it reaches the skin, it is called enterocutaneous fistula.

Causes: Most fistulas are a complication of gastrointestinal surgery. Other are:

Inflammatory processes such as infections or intestinal inflammatory diseases (Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis);
Trauma and penetrating wounds, particularly as a gun shot or knife.
SYMPTOMS: Depending on the part of the intestine involved, gastrointestinal fistulas may cause diarrhea, nutrient malabsorption and dehydration. Entero-enteric fistulas may have no symptoms, enterocutaneous ones can cause the intestinal contents to escape from an open wound.
DIAGNOSIS: A fistula can often be identified with a barium test. If the fistulus reaches the colon, there may be need for a dull clisma. A TAC of the abdomen is usually done to determine any abscess and its area of ​​infection. A fistologist can also be done by injection of a contrast dye into the opening of a fistula skin, followed by a radiograph.

THERAPY: Most of the fistulas are closed alone after a few weeks or months. Depending on the situation, some people may need to receive endovine feeding while the fistula heals. In some cases where the fistula does not heal, surgery is required to remove a part of the intestine.

PROGNOSIS: The healing possibilities depend on the general health state, the cause and severity of the fistula. In otherwise healthy people, prospects are great. Possible complications may be malnutrition and dehydration, depending on the intestinal position, or even skin problems and infections.

Contact a doctor if you have a significant change in intestinal habits, particularly severe diarrhea, fluid leakage from an abdomen or near the anus, especially if you have recently undergone abdominal surgery.

[Source: Ny Times]


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Photophobia is a discomfort to the eye in light. This is a common symptom. For many people, photophobia is not caused by a basic illness. Serious photophobia can be associated with eye problems and cause severe eye pain, even with poor lighting.

CAUSES: The most common are:

Excessive use of contact lenses, or poorly fitted contact lenses;
Eye diseases, injuries or infections;
Burns to the eye;
Common headache;
Acute iritis or uveitis (inflammation inside the eyes);
Corneal abrasion;
Corneal Ulcer;
Medicines such as amphetamines, atropine, cocaine, cyclopentolate, idoxuridine, phenylephrine, scopolamine, trifluridine, tropicamide, and vidarabine;
Eyes dilated.
THERAPY: Discomfort due to light sensitivity can be reduced by avoiding sunlight, closing the eyes, wearing dark glasses, or darkening the room. However, the cause for light sensitivity should be determined, as proper treatment can cure the problem. Urgently care if the pain passes from moderate to severe in poor lighting conditions. Contact a doctor if light sensitivity is severe, for example, if you need to wear sunglasses even if it is closed or if sensitivity occurs with headache, red eyes or blurred vision or does not pass through the bow A day or two.

Therapies to overcome photophobia involve anti-anxiety medications and physical therapy. Some of the drugs used in the treatment of photophobia include:

Voltaren ophthalmic;
Maxalt MLT;
Maxalt RPD.
All medicines, even those that do not require a prescription, must be agreed with your doctor.

DIAGNOSIS: The physician will have to undergo a physical examination, including an eye examination. Questions about symptoms, possible wounds, dust or chemical exposures, etc. may be asked. Inform your doctor if you have any of these symptoms:

Pain in the eyes;
Neck rigidity;
Blurred vision;
Bleeding or wounding in one eye;
Numbness or tingling in other parts of the body;
Changes in hearing.
The following tests can be performed:

Corneal scraping;
Examination with slit lamp;
Lumbar puncture.
PROGNOSIS: The possibilities of healing photophobia depend on the cause.

Sources: [http://health.nytimes.com/health/; www.wrongdiagnosis.com]


Fracture to the nose

A nose fracture is a rupture in a bone or cartilage on or near the nasal septum (the line dividing the nostrils). A fractured nose is the most common facial fracture. Usually occurs after a trauma, and often with other facial fractures. Sometimes, due to an injury, the cartilage dividing the nostrils can break. Nose and neck injuries are often detected together, because a strong stroke enough to hurt the nose can be strong enough to hurt the neck too.

This causes serious injury or problems requiring immediate attention from a physician. However, for minor nose injuries, the doctor may prefer to see the patient one week after the injury, to see if the nose is deformed. Occasionally, surgery may be needed to correct a nasal septal deformity.

SYMPTOMS: The most common are:

Bruises around the eyes;
Difficulty breathing through the nose;
Deformed appearance (may not be obvious until a swelling occurs);
The wound usually disappears after 2 weeks.

THERAPY: These first aid tips:

Reassure the patient and try to keep it calm;
Breathe the patient through his mouth by sitting him in order to avoid the blood flowing into his throat;
Apply cold packs on the nose to reduce swelling. If possible, the patient must hold the cloth so that there is not too much pressure on the nose;
To help relieve pain, acetaminophen (Tylenol) is recommended.
Very important is DO NOT try to straighten a broken nose and DO NOT move the person if there is no reason to suspect neck or head injuries. Contact a doctor immediately if:

Bleeding does not stop;
Blood flow is very strong;
You suspect a blood clot in the septum;
A cranial or neck trauma is suspected;
The nose appears deformed;
The person has difficulty breathing.
PREVENTION: Wear a protective helmet during work or a violent contact sport such as riding, cycling, skateboarding, roller skates, or rollerblades. Use seat belts and adjust the parking spot while driving.

Source: [http://health.nytimes.com/health/]


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Cranial fracture

Skull fracture is a bone skull breakage. This can occur with head injuries. Although the skull is tough, elastic, and provides excellent protection for the brain, a severe impact can cause its fracture, which can result in brain injury.

The brain can be directly affected by a damage to the nervous system and bleed, but it can also be indirectly influenced by the blood clots that form under the skull and then compress the tissue underneath the brain (subdural or epidural hematoma).

A simple fracture is a bone breakage without damage to the skin.
A linear skull fracture is a rupture in a skull bone similar to a thin line without splinters, depression, or bone distortion.
A fracture of the skull depressed is a broken bone skull (or "skull skull portion") with bone depression to the brain.
A composite fracture involves a rupture or loss of skin and bone splinters
CAUSES: The most common are:

Head trauma;
Automobile Accidents;
Physical and sport aggression.
SYMPTOMS: The most common are:

Bleeding from the wound, ears, nose or around the eyes;
Ecchymosis behind the ears or under the eyes;
Pupils with unequal sizes, not reactive to light;
Difficulty with equilibrium;
Loss of blood from nose or ears;
Loss of consciousness;
Unhappiness, irritability;
Eloquy jammed;
Stiff neck;
Visual disturbances;
He retched.
The only visual symptom can be a bump on the head. A bump or bruise may take up to 24 hours to develop.

THERAPY: If you were in the presence of a person with a cranial fracture, the first aid to be provided includes:

1. Check the airway, respiration and circulation. If necessary, start artificial respiration and heart massage (without improvising if you are not capable of it).

2. Avoid moving the victim (if not strictly necessary) until the doctor arrives. Call an ambulance.

3. If the victim needs to be moved, be sure to stabilize the head and neck. Put your hands on both sides of the head and under your shoulders. Do not let the head bend forward or backward, or twist it.

4. Carefully check the site of the wound, but probe with a foreign object. It may be difficult to know if the skull is fractured or depressed (bruised) at the site injured.

5. If there is bleeding, apply constant pressure with a clean cloth to check for blood loss on a large area.

6. If there is a wound, do not remove the original fabric. Instead, apply extra cloths on the top, and continue to exert pressure.

7. If the victim vomits, stabilize the head and neck (as indicated in the number 3), and carefully turn the victim to the side to avoid suffocation by vomiting.

8. If the victim is conscious and has none of the symptoms listed above, take it to the nearest medical emergency department (even if the patient does not think they need medical care).

What NOT to do:

Do not move the victim if not absolutely necessary (head injuries may be associated with spinal injuries);
Do not remove protruding objects;
Do not allow the victim to continue to engage in physical activity;
Do not forget to keep an eye on it until your doctor arrives;
Do not give the victim any medication before consulting a physician;
Do not leave the victim alone, even if there are no obvious injuries and say he is fine.
Contact a doctor if:

There are problems with breathing or circulation;
Direct pressure does not stop the bleeding from the nose, ears or wound;
There is blood loss;
There is swelling of the face, bleeding or bruising;
There is an object that protrudes from the skull;
The victim is unconscious, has seizures, has multiple injuries, seems to be in danger or is not shiny.
PREVENTION: To avoid cranial fractures:

Use seat belts every time you are in a motor vehicle;
Use your helmet whenever you practice cycling, skating, skiing, climbing, contact sports that provide them;
Use products designed specifically for the type of sport or recreation in which you participate;
Provide adequate controls for children of any age;
Do not allow children to bicycle or skate at night;
Providing and wearing high visibility clothing;
Teach children to comply with traffic rules and road signs;
Educating people about workplace risks, recreational activities or sports activities and how to avoid accidents;


Pharyngitis is an inflammation of the pharynx, the back of the throat, between the tonsils and the larynx. The condition often results in a sore throat.

Causes: There are many causes for pharyngitis, but the most common are bacteria. They are Group A (the most common) streptococcus, Corynebacterium, arcanobacterium, Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia pneumoniae. Other causes of pharyngitis may be gonococcus and viruses. Most cases of pharyngitis occur during the colder months, and often spread among family members.

SYMPTOMS: The main symptom is sore throat. If the cause is throat streptococci, other symptoms may include:

Swelling in the lymph nodes of the neck.
DIAGNOSIS: Your doctor will perform a physical examination and look at the throat. Examinations can be made to exclude streptococcus. Further laboratory tests can be made depending on the suspect of other causes.

THERAPY: Treatment depends on the cause of the sore throat. Hot and salty water to make gargle, painkillers and fluids can be useful. Antibiotics are prescribed if streptococcus is diagnosed.

PROGNOSIS: Most cases of pharyngitis pass alone without complications. Possible complications may be:

Tonsil abscess or behind the pharynx;
Airway blockage (in severe cases).
Contact a doctor if you develop a sore throat that does not go away after a few days, or if you have a high fever, swelling of the lymph nodes in the neck, or a rash. If you have sore throats and difficulty in breathing, seek immediate medical attention.

Sources: [Alcaide ML, Bisno AL. Faringitis and epiglottitis. Infect Dis Clin North Am. 2007; Del Mar CB, Glasziou PP, Spinks A. Antibiotics for sore throat. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2008; http://health.nytimes.com/health/; Gerber MA. The diagnosis and treatment of pharyngitis in children. Pediatr Clin North Am. 2005; Institute for Clinical Systems Improvement. Health 
careguideline: Diagnosis and treatment of respiratory diseases in children and adults.

Contact your doctor for more information. The information provided on (what the health) is of a general nature and for purely disclosure purposes can in no way replace the advice of a physician (or a legally qualified person) or, in specific cases, of other operators health.


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