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anemia-Aortic aneurysm-Angina pectoris

  Anemia

The ideal treatment for anemia consists of four important things
pomegranate . Eggplant. Beets. Black honey extracted from cane sugar
Anemia is a condition whereby the hemoglobin level is decreased in the red blood cells. These 
globules are responsible for delivering oxygen to the tissues. This hemoglobin is the iron rich protein that gives blood red and at the same time allows red blood cells to transport oxygen from the lungs to the rest of the body.


Causes
There are three main causes of anemia:

Loss of blood (bleeding).
Lack of red blood cell production.
Higher rate of destruction of red blood cells.
These causes may be the result of various diseases, health problems or other factors: in the case of blood loss, it may also be caused by a decrease in platelets or some coagulation factor; The lack of production of red blood cells may be due to a chronic or renal disease and, in the case of the rapid destruction of these red blood cells, the cause may be hereditary spherocytosis, a condition in which the red blood cells are too much Fragile due to a genetic problem in a protein of its structure.

Although red blood cells are produced in various parts of the body, most of their production is carried out by bone marrow, a white tissue that is found in the middle of some bones and which generates blood cells.

The red blood cells that are considered healthy last between 90 and 120 days, period after which some parts of the body are responsible for eliminating the blood cells. Erythropoietin is the hormone produced in the kidneys that is responsible for giving the signal to the bone marrow to produce more red blood cells.

The body needs vitamins, minerals and nutrients like iron, vitamin B12 or folic acid to produce red blood cells. Lack of them is caused by changes in the stomach or intestines in the process of absorption of nutrients (celiac disease, for example), insufficient food, slow blood loss or surgery in which part of the stomach or intestines .

Possible causes of anemia may also be:

Certain drugs: In some cases, a medicine can cause the immune system to erroneously believe that red blood cells are foreign and dangerous agents. The body responds by creating antibodies to attack its own red blood cells. These antibodies bind to these red blood cells and cause them to be destroyed too early. Drugs that can cause anemia include cephalosporins (a type of antibiotic), penicillin and its derivatives, some non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or quinidine.

Disappearance of red blood cells earlier than usual, a consequence that is usually caused by problems in the immune system.

Chronic diseases: such as cancer, ulcerative colitis or certain arthritis.

Inheritance is also an important factor in anemia, especially for types such as thalassemia (when the body produces an abnormal amount of hemoglobin) or sickle cell anemia (when the globules are 
semicircular rather than disc shaped).
symptom
Common symptoms of anemia:

Fatigue.
Lack of energy.
Weakness.
Difficulty breathing.
Dizziness.
Palpitations.
Pallor.
Symptoms of Severe Anemia:

Chest pain.
Angina pectoris.
Myocardial infarction.
Signs that may indicate that the patient has anemia:

Changes in skin color.
Low blood pressure.
Accelerated breathing.
Cold and pale skin.
If the anemia is due to a decrease in red blood cells: jaundice (causes the skin and white parts to turn yellow).
Prevention
To prevent episodes of certain types of anemia, especially those due to lack of iron and vitamins, changes in diet or food supplements may be made.

Types
B12 deficiency anemia: caused by a fall in the number of red blood cells due to a lack of this vitamin.

Folate deficiency anemia: caused by a decrease in the number of red blood cells due to a lack of folate, a type of vitamin B also called folic acid.

Iron deficiency anemia: occurs when the body does not have enough iron, a mineral that helps produce red blood cells.

Chronic disease anemia: typical of those patients who have a long term chronic illness.

Hemolytic anemia: one in which the red blood cells are destroyed earlier than expected, ie 120 days.

Idiopathic aplastic anemia: A condition in which the bone marrow does not produce enough blood cells.

Megaloblastic anemia: red blood cells are larger than normal.

Pernicious anemia: a decrease in red blood cells that occurs when the intestine can not properly absorb vitamin B12.

Sickle cell anemia: A disease transmitted from parents to children. The red blood cells, which usually have the shape of a disk, have a semilunar shape.

Thalassemia: A blood disorder passed from parent to child (hereditary) in which the body produces an abnormal form of hemoglobin, the protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen. This disorder causes the destruction of large numbers of red blood cells, leading to anemia.
Diagnosis
Doctors diagnose anemia based on the patient's medical and family history, medical examination and test results and procedures.

Medical and family history: The doctor will ask the patient if they have any signs or symptoms of anemia. In addition, it will check if you have had any illness or health problem that can cause such a condition. The patient should inform about the medicines he / she is taking, the type of feeding that follows and if any of their relatives have anemia or a history of the disease.

A medical examination will be done to determine the severity of the anemia and to investigate its causes. This test may consist of: listening to the heart to see if the heartbeat is rapid or irregular, and the lungs, as well as palpating the abdomen to see the size of the liver or spleen. In addition, the doctor can perform other tests to determine possible blood loss.

Complete blood count, in which different components of the blood are examined; If hemoglobin anemia is diagnosed, other tests such as hemoglobin electrophoresis, reticulocyte count, or tests to determine iron concentrations in the blood and body deposits will be needed.
Treatments
Treatment of anemia depends on the type, cause and severity of the disease. Treatments may consist of changes in diet, administration of nutritional supplements, medicines, or surgery to deal with blood loss.

Changes in food or supplements: increase iron intake (through foods such as spinach or similar vegetables, lentils, chickpeas, nuts or cereals and bread), vitamin B12 (present in eggs, meats and fish) , Folic acid (thanks to bread, pasta, beans or bananas) or vitamin C (found in kiwis, strawberries or melon).

Drugs like antimicrobials to treat infections, hormones to reduce menstrual bleeding or medicines to prevent the body's immune system from destroying its own red blood cells.

In the most severe cases, interventions such as blood transfusion, transplantation of blood and bone marrow stem cells will be performed to increase the number of red, white, and platelet cells or, in extreme cases, surgery for severe bleeding or Potentially deadly.
Other data
Possible complications
In cases of severe anemia, patients will have problems for their body to transport the amount of oxygen necessary for all processes to be performed on a regular basis and, therefore, the patient may suffer a heart attack.

In the case of pregnant women, if anemia has been present during pregnancy, in some cases children may be born with low weight and smaller.

Finally, if very strong hemorrhages occur that are not controlled, the patien
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Aortic aneurysm

An aneuabnormal dilation is caused by the weakness of the wall of an area of ​​the blood vessel.

Aneurysms may appear at any point in an artery, but mainly manifest in the abdominal aorta. However, there are aneurysms that also arise outside of it; Manrysm is a localized and permanent dilation that occurs in the walls of the arteries. This y are the effect of hereditary weakness or atherosclerosis; Others are due to external factors such as gunshot wounds or firearms and bacterial infections in the arterial wall.

Causes
The causes that cause the aneurysms are not known with exactitude. Some are congenital, that is, they are present from birth.

They can trigger as a result of some diseases, such as atherosclerosis, a disease that weakens the aortic wall until the pressure inside this artery causes it to widen and protrude outwards.

Usually, along with the aneurysm, also appears the blood clot (called thrombus). The formation of aneurysms increases when the patient has high cholesterol, smokes, has hypertension and / or some inflammatory disease of the aorta.
symptom
The symptoms will depend on the type of aneurysm:

Abdominal aortic aneurysm
The first manifestations are a kind of pulsatile mass in the abdomen. In these situations the aneurysm causes intense pain, especially in the back, which is usually persistent, although if you change your position tends to relieve.

If a severe internal hemorrhage occurs together with the aneurysm, the diagnosis usually evolves rapidly towards shock and death in a high percentage of cases.

Aneurysm of the thoracic aorta
This aneurysm is one of the few that can be very serious without causing any symptoms. However, the typical signs are pain (mainly upper back, high intensity), coughing and wheezing in the chest (wheezing).

The pain may also appear in the chest and arms, which can be mistaken for a heart attack. The pressure created on the esophagus can make it difficult to swallow. In some cases you can even get to death due to the loss of blood.

Dissecting aneurysm
Most people with an aortic dissection or dissecting aneurysm present pain that appears suddenly and very intensely.

This pain is common in the back, in the area between the shoulder blades. Depending on which arteries are clogged, the result may be a stroke, a heart attack, sudden pain in the abdomen or an inability to move a limb.

Prevention
The best way to try to prevent the possible onset of an aneurysm is to change the lifestyle to a healthier one that includes a balanced diet, such as the Mediterranean.

Experts recommend controlling hypertension and quitting smoking to reduce the chances.

Types
There are several types of aneurysm:

Abdominal aortic aneurysm: They occur in the segment of the aorta that runs the abdomen. They usually measure more than seven centimeters, so they are more likely to break.

Aneurysm of the thoracic aorta: This type of aneurysm traverses the thorax. The most frequent are those that dilate from the place where it leaves the heart.

Dissecting aneurysm or aortic dissection: In this case the internal lining of the aorta is torn, but the external one remains intact and, when the blood enters this duct, it raises the existing middle layer, creating a new canal in the wall Aortic
Diagnosis
In an aneurysm, pain is often a very useful symptom for diagnosing the disease. However, in most patients the pain appears late and delays the diagnosis.

There are many cases in which aneurysms do not present any symptoms. For this reason, they could only be seen in a physical examination or in x-rays or ultrasounds that are made on the occasion of another consultation. If the aneurysm has grown rapidly and is about to break, or if you are pressed during a medical examination of the abdomen, it will spontaneously hurt.

To diagnose an aneurysm, an x-ray of the abdomen can be performed, which will show an aneurysm with calcium deposits on your wall; An ultrasound, which will allow the size of the aneurysm to be established; A CT scan or an MRI (magnetic resonance imaging).

Treatments
Treatment, like symptoms, will depend on the type of aneurysm that the patient has:

Abdominal aortic aneurysm
Treatment in this case depends on the size of the aneurysm. If the width is less than 5 centimeters, the chances of it breaking are very low. On the contrary, if it is greater than 5 centimeters the break will be more likely.

For these cases surgery is usually recommended, unless there is a great risk for different medical reasons. The operation would consist of inserting a synthetic graft to repair the aneurysm. If it breaks or threatens to break, an emergency intervention should be carried out. If the rupture of the aneurysm is not treated, it is always fatal.

Aneurysm of the thoracic aorta
In this case, if the aneurysm is larger than 7.5 centimeters wide, a surgical procedure should be performed to implant a synthetic graft.

If the person has Marfan syndrome (rare disease affecting the connective tissue and different organs), it is recommended to repair the smaller aneurysms by surgery. These aneurysms, being located in the thoracic zone, have a high risk of death during surgical repair.

Dissecting aneurysm or aortic dissection
In this type the specialist should prescribe drugs as soon as possible so that both the heart rate and blood pressure are reduced, but can continue to deliver a sufficient supply of blood to the heart, brain and kidneys.

Once drug treatment is started, the doctor will assess whether the treatment of choice will continue to be drug therapy or have to undergo a surgical operation. In most cases, professionals often recommend surgery for dissections located in the first centimeters of the aorta, unless there is an excessive surgical risk.

Other data
Forecast
If aneurysms are not diagnosed and treated quickly they can continue to grow. This means that the more they grow, the more likely the aneurysms will eventually break down and cause internal bleeding that can often result in the death of the patient.
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Angina pectoris

Angina is a pain or discomfort in the chest that occurs when the heart does not get enough blood supply. This is due to partial obstruction of the coronary arteries. If the obstruction only lasts a few minutes and then the patient recovers, it is called angina.

This pathology can originate when the heart is forced to make a greater effort and the organism is incapable to increase the blood supply of this organ.

Angina is very common. In men it is usually given after 30 years of age, and in women later.

Causes
The cause, in most cases, is atherosclerosis. Angina pectoris is usually preceded by physical or emotional arousal; It can occasionally be triggered by a heavy meal or driving a car during busy traffic.

Another cause may be exercising in a cold environment, in which case there are patients who experience almost immediate relief from a cold room to a warm room.

When the heart (coronary) arteries are affected and can not adjust to the increased demand for blood, the nerves of the heart transmit painful messages of urgent warning to the brain. This pain, which usually does not exceed 20 minutes, is because the brain, from confusion, feels the impulses from nearby locations, such as the arms, neck or jaw.

On the other hand, there are a number of modifiable risk factors that may favor the formation of atherosclerosis plaques:

Smoking.
Obesity.
Diabetes.
Hypertension.
Increased cholesterol.
symptom
The main manifestations of angina are:

Chest pain and feeling of acute and suffocating oppression: Generally behind the sternum and sometimes extended to the left arm and sometimes to the right. Chest pain usually lasts 1-2 minutes to 10-15 minutes (sometimes there is a feeling of heaviness or tightness in the chest that does not become pain).

Feeling of anxiety or imminent death.

Profuse sweating (hyperhidrosis).

Pallor.
Prevention
Angina pectoris is triggered due to a coronary obstruction that in many cases is due to a genetic predisposition on which the patient can not influence.

However, there are certain risk factors that influence the onset of the disease. If the patient intervenes in these, the disease could progress more slowly and symptoms reduce.

The changes that must be carried out by the patient are:

Give up smoking.
Do moderate physical activity on a regular basis.
Maintain adequate blood pressure, cholesterol and glucose.
Avoid obesity.
Follow a healthy diet and lead a healthy lifestyle.
Types
Given the circumstances in which anginal pain appears (such as those that indicate in general the mechanism that causes it), different classifications have been proposed. The Spanish Society of Cardiology distinguishes three types of angina:

Stress angina
Caused by physical activity or other situations involving an increased need for oxygen in the heart. It is usually brief and goes away upon discontinuation of exercise or administration of nitroglycerin. In turn, it is classified as: initial, if its seniority is less than one month; Progressive, if it has worsened during the last month in frequency, intensity, duration or level of effort in which it appears; Stable, if its characteristics and the functional capacity of the patient have not been modified in the last month.

Resting angina
It occurs spontaneously, with no apparent relation to changes in oxygen consumption in the heart. Its duration is variable and sometimes the episodes are very prolonged and seem like a heart attack.

Mixed or unstable angina
The one in which the angina of effort and rest, coexist with a clear predominance of one or the other. Both initial angina, progressive angina, and rest angina follow unpredictable forms of evolution and their prognosis is variable, and they are also grouped under the name of unstable angina.

Its treatment differs considerably from that of stable angina. This is always given when performing the same level of exercise and the duration of crises is similar. Unstable angina may be the warning of an imminent heart attack and needs special treatment.

The history of unstable angina is frequent attacks of angina pectoris not linked to physical activity. It is sometimes perceived differently, without any fixed pattern, and extends to the upper abdomen, which causes it to be attributed to indigestion.

As the clinical manifestations can be very varied, it is the physician, with the help of electrocardiograms and laboratory analysis, who has to make a conclusive diagnosis.

Diagnosis
The diagnosis of angina pectoris begins with clinical suspicion after suffering pain and concludes with the performance of certain tests that help to rule out other cardiovascular diseases, such as an electrocardiogram. The main tests performed by doctors are:

Exercise test: Also called ergometry. This test is the most used to determine the diagnosis and obtain information on the prognosis of the pathology.

In the test the patient will perform physical exercise on a treadmill or on a static bicycle while the physician evaluates if there is pain while performing the activity and what the subject's electrical response (if there are changes in the electrocardiogram).


Coronary arteriography: It is performed through a catheterization and a contrast is injected. It is the reference method to diagnose coronary narrowing and is usually performed to correct the narrowing of the arteries (dilation and stent implantation) in cases with poor prognosis.
Treatments
Among the most effective and recommended treatments are:

Nitroglycerin: Dilates the coronary arteries and the pain usually reverses in minutes. It is taken by placing a pill under the tongue or also by spraying. It can give headache as a side effect.

Calcium antagonists or calcium channel blockers: They prevent the entry of calcium into the heart cells. This decreases the tendency of the coronary arteries to narrow and the effort made by the heart, so that their oxygen needs also decrease.

Beta-blockers: They act by blocking many effects of adrenaline in the body, particularly the stimulating effect on the heart. The result is that the heart beats slower and with less force, and therefore needs less oxygen. They also lower blood pressure.

Surgery: In the case of unstable angina or stable angina that resists treatment with medication, you may be able to correct the obstruction of the coronary vessels, either by bypass or, in some cases, by coronary angioplasty.
Other data
How is it different from infarction?
Myocardial infarction (heart muscle) and angina are the most common cause of chest pain (chest pain). While in angina the pain is due to a lack of transient oxygen, necrosis (death) of the myocardial cells occurs in infarction. The source of the problem is the lack of enough oxygen to keep the heart cells active.

This lack of oxygen causes intense pain, oppression or discomfort in the heart region, which extends to the shoulder and left arm, causing suffocation and, at the same time, marked anxiety or distress.

You can also notice in the back, the two arms, behind the sternum and even


Contact your doctor for more information. The information provided on (what the health) is of a general nature and for purely disclosure purposes can in no way replace the advice of a physician (or a legally qualified person) or, in specific cases, of other operators health.


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