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bronchospasm-Stomach ache-Stock Exchange

Obstructive chronic bronchopneumopathy (COPD)

Obstructive chronic bronchopneumopathy (COPD) is one of the most common pulmonary diseases. There are two main forms of COPD: chronic bronchitis, which involves coughing with long lasting mucus, and the emphysema, which involves the destruction of lungs over time. Most people with COPD have a combination of both conditions.

Causes: Smoking is the main cause of COPD. The more a person smokes, the greater the likelihood that he will develop the disease. However, some people smoke for years and are never affected by COPD. In rare cases, non-smokers lacking a protein called alpha-1 antitrypsin may develop emphysema. Other risk factors for COPD include:

Exposure to certain gases or fumes in workplaces;
Exposure to heavy quantities of passive smoking and pollution;
Frequent use of the cooking fire, without proper ventilation.
SYMPTOMS: The most common are:

Cough, with or without mucus;
Many respiratory infections;
Lack of breath (dyspnoea), which worsens with mild activity;
Since the symptoms of COPD develop slowly, some people may not know that they are ill.

DIAGNOSIS: The best COPD test is a pulmonary function test called spirometry. This implies blowing as strong as possible in a small machine that tests the pulmonary capacity. The results can be checked immediately, and the test does not involve exercise, blood sampling, or exposure to radiation. Using a stethoscope to auscultate your lungs can also be useful. However, sometimes the lungs do not have abnormal sounds even in the presence of COPD.

Lung scan (such as X-rays and TACs) may be useful, but sometimes it can be normal, even in the presence of the disease. Sometimes patients need to carry out a blood test (called blood arterial blood) to measure the amount of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood.

THERAPY: There is no cure for COPD. However, there are many things you can do to relieve the symptoms and prevent the disease from getting worse. People with COPD must quit smoking. This is the best way to slow down lung damage. The drugs used to treat COPD include:
Inhalers (bronchodilators) to open the respiratory tract, such as ipratropium (Atrovent), Tiotropio (Spiriva), Salmeterol (Serevent), Formoterol (Foradil), or albuterol;
Inhaled steroids to reduce lung inflammation;
Anti-inflammatory drugs such as montelukast (singulair) and roflimulast.
In severe cases or during an inflammation, it may be necessary

Oral or endovascular steroids;
Bronchodilators with a nebulizer;
Oxygen therapy;
Mechanical breathing assistance.
Antibiotics are prescribed to prevent COPD worse. You may need home oxygen therapy if you have a low level of oxygen in the blood. Pulmonary rehabilitation does not cure lung disease but may teach you to breathe differently so you can stay active. Exercise can help maintain muscle strength in your legs. It is advisable to take walks to maintain strength. Furthermore:

Ask your doctor or therapist how much exercise to do;
Increase the exercise gradually;
Try not to mention when you are walking, if you are short of breath;
Use breathing from the mouth when exhaled (to empty the lungs before the next breath).
It is advisable to avoid very cold air, so that no one gets smoke at home and reduces air pollution such as chimney smoke and other irritant substances. Follow a healthy diet based on fish, poultry, or lean meat, and also fruits and vegetables. If it is difficult to keep your weight shape, talk to a doctor or dietician.

Surgery can be a remedy, but only a few patients benefit from these treatments as an intervention to remove parts of the lungs or lung transplant for serious cases.

PROGNOSIS: COPD is a long-term (chronic) disease that worsens more rapidly if you do not stop smoking. Patients with severe COPD will have short breaths with most activities and will often be hospitalized. Possible complications may be:

Irregular heart beat (arrhythmia);
Necessity of a machine for breathing and oxygen therapy;
Heart failure or pulmonary heart (cardiac edema and heart failure due to chronic lung disease);
Severe weight loss and malnutrition;
Bone thinning (osteoporosis).
Contact a doctor if you have a rapid increase in breathlessness.

PREVENTION: No smoking prevents most cases of COPD.

[Source: Ny Times]



Bronchospasm is the constriction of bronchi and bronchioles that can usually occur due to 3 factors: a smooth spasm of bronchial and bronchial musculature, airway inflammation and excessive production of excreted (mucus) due to a Allergic reaction or irritation caused by possible mechanical friction of the air, drying or excessive airway cooling (for example, during exercise-induced asthma).

Causes: Bronchospasm is a normal physiological reaction to alveolar hyperventilation. People with bronchitis, asthma and other conditions suffer from alveolar hypocapnia (lack of CO2 in the airways). Bronchospasm may be induced by many chemicals that can cause both bronchocostriction and bronchodilation, but CO2 plays a key role due to two factors: its vasodilating power and further negative effects caused by alveolar hypocapnia. With these risk factors enough physical effort to activate bronchospasm.

Woe to Lady GaGa: canceled the upcoming concerts
Lady Germanotta was forced to postpone the next live due to a bad inflammation at the joints he had overlooked and hiding at the staff
Chronic hyperventilation (breathing more air than standard) also leads to cellular hypoxia and immunosuppression regardless of the arterial ventilation / perfusion ratio and CO2 levels. As a result of alveolar hyperventilation, there are additional effects such as asthma with coughing that causes frequent respiratory infections, excessive mucus production and chronic inflammation. Allergic causes (powders, pollen, and others) cause further problems due to the hypersensitive immune system caused by systemic hypoxia. All of these factors narrow the airways and increase the chance of contracting a bronchospasm. Other more rare causes may be the side effects of anesthesia or surgery.

SYMPTOMS: Bronchospasm symptoms include:

Difficulties in breathing;
Cough and dyspnoea (short breath).
The increased respiratory ventilation dramatically amplifies the effects of bronchospasm.

DIAGNOSIS: The main exam for bronchospasm is breathing. An X-ray examination of the chest may show minor changes, or even no change, in the chest. Examinations must also be made to exclude other causes of symptoms such as asthma.

THERAPY: The most effective way to deal with bronchoconstriction is the assignment of Beta-2 antagonists that relax the smooth musculature of the airways through the release of mast cells and basophils. This can be done through inhalers. They may also be given anti-inflammatory drugs such as corticosteroids if there is airway inflammation. In addition, those with asthma or bronchospasm must learn relaxation and breathing exercises, and if they are to engage in physical activity, they must work on breathing only with the nose and not with the mouth.

PREVENTION: The bronchospasm therapy techniques also apply as a form of prevention. Also people who are prone to bronchospasm caused by irritating external agents should circulate on the street with a breathing mask.

[Sources: Normalbreathing; Healtscout]


Stomach ache

Stomach ache

Stomach burns, or heartburn, is a painful burning sensation in the esophagus, just below or behind the chest. Pain often arises in the chest and can radiate to the neck or throat.

CAUSES: Almost everyone has an occasional fever. If they become frequent you may have gastroesophageal reflux disease. Normally, when food or a fluid enters the stomach, a muscular group at the end of the esophagus (called lower esophageal sphincter) closes the esophagus. If the muscle fails to close it tight enough, there may be a reflux. This partially digested material is acidic and may irritate the esophagus, causing heartburn and other symptoms. It is more likely that you will experience if you have a hysterectomy (the upper part of the stomach protrudes up into the chest cavity). Stomach burns can be caused or worsened by pregnancy and various medications such as:

Calcium-blockers for high blood pressure;
Progestins for abnormal menstrual bleeding or contraceptive pill;
Anticholinergics (for example, for sea sickness);
Some bronchodilators for asthma;
Tricyclic antidepressants;
Dopamine for Parkinson's Disease;
Sedations due to insomnia or anxiety;
Beta blockers for high blood pressure or heart disease.
If you suspect a drug may cause heartburn, talk to your doctor. Never change or stop therapy without consulting your doctor.

DIAGNOSIS: Stomach burning is usually easy to diagnose through the symptoms. Sometimes it can be confused with another stomach problem called dyspepsia. If the diagnosis is unclear, then you can consult a gastroenterologist for further examinations. First, your doctor will perform a physical examination and ask questions about symptoms, eating habits, and lifestyle. The following tests can be performed:

Blood test;
Esophageal motility to measure the LES pressure (lower esophageal sphincter);
Upper endoscopy to look inside the esophagus and stomach.
If the cure has not been successful, your doctor may consider prescribing drugs to reduce acid secretion. Any signs of bleeding will require a more complicated treatment plan.

THERAPY: Over time, reflux can damage the esophagus lining and cause serious problems. The good news is that making changes to some habits can do a lot to prevent stomach burns. The following tips will help prevent heartburn and other symptoms. First, avoid foods and beverages that can cause reflux, such as:

Carbonated drinks;
Citrus fruits and fruit juices;
Tomatoes and tomato sauces;
Spices or fatty foods, such as dairy products;
Chilli and mint.
So, try to change your eating habits:

Eat small meals. The full stomach puts pressure on the lower esophageal sphincter (LES), increasing the likelihood of reflux;
Avoid eating and getting to sleep right away. Let it pass at least 3 hours before lying down. This can make the pressure on LES more difficult;
Avoid doing physical exercises after eating.
Other lifestyle changes may also be needed:

Lose weight if you are overweight. Obesity increases abdominal pressure;
Stop smoking. Cigarette smoke chemicals weaken LES;
Sleep with your raised head about 15 cm. This reduces the likelihood that partially digested food will be refluxed in the esophagus;
Avoid tight belts or tight clothing. They tighten their stomach, and they can nourish the reflux:
Reduce stress. Try yoga, or chi, or meditation.
If you still have not got full healing, try some medications like:

Antacids, such as Maalox or Mylanta, to neutralize gastric acid;
H2 blockers such as Pepcid AC, Tagamet, Zantac to reduce gastric acid production;
Proton pump inhibitors such as Prilosec OTC, which stops almost all gastric acid production.
Contact a doctor if:
Vomiting a bloody or black liquid;
The stools are black;
The burning sensation on the chest is accompanied by a sense of crushing, or pressure. Sometimes a heart attack is mistaken for stomach burns;
The problem becomes frequent or does not go away with a few weeks of care;
There is unintended weight loss;
You have difficulty swallowing;
It has persistent coughing or inexplicable affection;
Symptoms get worse with antacids or blockers H2;
One of the drugs is thought to cause heartburn.
Sources: [DeVault KR, Castell DO. Updated Guidelines for Diagnosis and Treatment of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease. Am J Gastroenterol. 2005; L. Smith Updated ACG Guidelines for Diagnosis and Treatment of GERD. Am Fam Physician. 2005; http://health.nytimes.com/health/; Fass R. Predictors of heartburn during sleep in a large prospective cohort study. Chest. 2005; McCarthy D. Living with chronic pyrosis: his intuitions in fact debilitating. Gastroenterol Clin North Am. 2003]


Stock Exchange

Retro-Calcite Borsite

Back pain relief is a swelling (inflammation) of the full bag of liquid (bag) in the back of the heel.

Causes: A purse acts like a lubricating pillow between the tendons and the muscles to facilitate sliding on the bone. There are several larger bags in the joints of the body. The retro-calfskin bag is located at the back of the ankle near the heel. It's where the Achilles tendon connects the calf muscles to the heel. Repeated or excessive ankle wear may cause irritation and inflammation of the bag. Possible causes are walking, running, or jumping too much.

Woe to Lady GaGa: canceled the upcoming concerts
Lady Germanotta was forced to postpone the next live due to a bad inflammation at the joints he had overlooked and hiding at the staff
This condition is commonly associated with Achilles tendinitis with which it is sometimes mistaken. People at risk of this condition are those who follow exercise regimes that suddenly become aggressive or increase their activity without proper preparation.

SYMPTOMS: The most common are:

Pain in the heel, especially when walking, running, or when the area is touched;
Pain can worsen when you get up on the tips;
Hot and red skin on the back of the heel.
DIAGNOSIS: Your doctor will look at the clinical history to find out if you have symptoms of retro-calcium borsitis. Examining the ankle you can find the location of the pain. The doctor will seek softness and redness in the back of the heel. Pain may be worse when the doctor bends his ankle up. Imaging, such as X-rays and magnetic resonance imaging are not normally necessary at first. If the first treatment fails to improve the symptoms, your doctor may recommend these studies. Magnetic resonance can show inflammation.

THERAPY: Your doctor may suggest the following treatments:

Avoid activities that cause pain;
Ice on the heel several times a day;
Anti-inflammatory steroid drugs (for example, ibuprofen);
Personalized orthopedic remedies to help reduce stress on the heel;
Physical therapy to improve the flexibility and strength around the ankle, which can help improve the bursitis and prevent it from returning.
If these treatments do not work, your doctor may inject a small amount of steroids in the bag. Very rarely, surgery may be needed to remove the inflamed bag.

PROGNOSIS: This condition usually heals in a few weeks with proper treatment. Possible complications (rare) may occur if bursitis is associated with tendonitis. In this case, tendon rupture is possible.

Contact a doctor if you have pain in the heel or the back-calcified borsitis symptoms that do not improve with rest.

PREVENTION: Keep the right shape in exercise, as well as good flexibility and ankle strength to avoid this condition. Proper healing of the Achilles tendon helps to prevent injuries.

[Source: Ny Times]



Bissinosis is a lung disease caused by inhalation of cotton dust or powders of vegetable fibers such as flax or hemp.

Causes: Breathing dust produced in the textile industry may cause bissinosis. People who are sensitive may have asthma due to exposure to dust. Instead with bissinosis, the symptoms usually go away by the end of the working week. After long periods of exposure, the symptoms may continue throughout the week without improving.

Prevention methods have reduced the number of cases, but bissinosis is still common in developing countries. Smoking increases the risk of contracting this disease. Being exposed to dust many times can lead to chronic lung disease and lack of breath or breath.

SYMPTOMS: The most common are:

Chest tightness;
Symptoms worsen at the beginning of the working week, and then improve while you are away from the workplace.

DIAGNOSIS: Your doctor will need a detailed clinical history, and will ask questions to find out if the symptoms relate to single exposures or long exposure times. He will then take a physical examination, with particular attention to the lungs. Other tests include:

Chest radiography;
Pulmonary function test.
THERAPY: The best treatment is to stop exposing to dust. Reducing dust levels at the factory (improving the machine or ventilation) will help prevent bissinosis. Some people may be forced to change jobs to avoid further exposure.

Drugs such as bronchodilators usually improve the symptoms. Corticosteroids can be prescribed in the most severe cases. Quitting smoking is very important for people with this condition. Respiratory therapies, including nebulizers and postural drainage, may be prescribed if the condition becomes chronic. Oxygen therapy may be necessary even if oxygen levels in the blood are low. Exercise programs, breathing exercises, and patient education programs are often very helpful for people with a chronic lung disease.

Attending support groups with other people who are affected by similar illness can often help you understand the disease and adapt to the lifestyle's necessary care and changes.

PROGNOSIS: Symptoms generally improve after the powder show is stopped. Continuous exposure can lead to damaged lung function. Possible complication may be chronic lung disease.

PREVENTION: Checking the dust, using face masks, and other measures can reduce the risk. Stop smoking, especially if you are working in the textile manufacturing sector.

Source: [http://health.nytimes.com/health/]

Contact your doctor for more information. The information provided on (what the health) is of a general nature and for purely disclosure purposes can in no way replace the advice of a physician (or a legally qualified person) or, in specific cases, of other operators health.
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